8th - 31st November 2007

Whatever your tradition of practice, welcome to Parayana!

I have added a lot of background material - borrowed writings on Sakyamuni and his early disciples. There is a large section on the Buddha's women disciples by Dr. Bimala Churn Law. Also new extracts from Sangharakshita's wanderings in India. All this new material is found in the Archive under March.

The next Sakyamuni Heartland pilgrimage runs from the 8th to the 31st of November. Then 22nd December 2007 - 16th Jan 2008.

Our fifth Sakyamuni Heartland pilgrimage for the first time visits all the Four Places of Pilgrimage, The Eight Great Pilgrimage Places, and the Four Unalterable Places for All Buddhas.

Starting from Delhi we visit Sankissa, Kosambi, Sravasti, Kapilavastu, Lumbini, Kushinagar, the great stupa at Kessaputta, Vaisali, Nalanda, Rajgir, the Vultures Peak and Buddha Gaya – for the full moon. We have a short retreat at Buddha Gaya; explore mountains and caves, shrines and temples. Then, on to Sarnath with a boat trip tour of vivacious Varanasi before getting the overnight train back to Delhi.







It’s a spacious pilgrimage, with a rhythm of one day of travel followed by two nights and one day at a holy site. So, we get into our leisurely stride, get into our practice, get into the pilgrimage and gather lots of impressions – all perfect preparation for a full moon beneath the Bodhi Tree.

There are some interesting links - check out the books for sale online, some are links to Amazon bargains. Windhorse give a 10% discount on all books ordered online – and Bhante’s Crossing the Stream is a snip at £ 1.99.

There are also links to two other pilgrimage sites I am starting to develop; Parayana – news and information about our service and team, and Urgyen Sangharakshita – for the Teachers of the Present pilgrimage.


I lead the Sakyamuni Heartland pilgrimage twice a year, together the new Mandala of Enlightenment pilgrimage. Please contact me about Pilgrimage to India or Nepal, now or in the future.

These sites are growing; so book-mark and return for the occasional look.

Take Care

Ratna



The Classic Buddhist Pilgrimage

8th - 31st November



Sakyamuni and the early Sangha come to life. The Suttas you have read and the stories you have heard spring into three dimensions and burst into colour. The Bodhisattva, Mayadevi, Prajapati Gotami, and King Suddhodana, Yashodhara and Rahula, Chanda and Khantaka, The Buddha, Ananda and Anathapindika, Sariputta and Moggallana, Dhammadinna, and Maha Kassapa-they leave the halls of memory and walk beside us, sit with us, smile upon us – at least in our imagination.

We go back two thousand five hundred years, into the world of Siddhartha, the first Buddhist dawn, and the early Sangha. In imagination, we go back in time, but in our bodies, we walk, sit and reflect where those worthy-ones actually walked, sat and taught. At last, you can fill in the colours and populate your mind with images of the landscapes the Buddha lived in, and the peoples he lived amongst. At night, we hear the sounds the Buddha heard. By day, we see faces, fields, rivers, trees, and rocky hills pretty much as the Buddha saw them.




It’s a leisurely yet true pilgrimage,
through incredible India,
to places of real significance.


In Brief


Sravasti's Ancient Walls

When: Next - 8th November – 1st December 2007. 24 Days on pilgrimage in India

We offer this Sakyamuni Heartland pilgrimage twice a year – Usually in November and Jan/Feb.

Cost: The commercial value of the 24 day pilgrimage is high but our Pilgrims simply agree to cover the remarkably low costs (between 225 and 400 UK Pounds depending on the size of the group), and then make a donation towards Dharma and Social projects we sponsor.

Included: All accommodation transport food and site fees.


Not included: Airfares and Insurance.

Connections: Delhi is our start and end point. Everyone is met at Arrivals at the beginning of the pilgrimage, and accompanied to Departures at the conclusion.

Travel: 10 – 20 pilgrims, plus guide and team. Travel by spacious AC Coach. Bags are carried by our Team.

Accommodation and Food: We stay in simple, clean and atmospheric Pilgrims accommodation. Our own cooks ensure good safe food.

More Information: When you book we send you information sheets covering; Spiritual Preparation, Visas, Insurance, What to Take, What to Expect, Health and Safety, Recommended Reading, Detailed Itinerary, Character Notes, Literary Extracts and the Practice of Pilgrimage.

Pilgrimage Guide: Dharmachari Ratnaketu.


Ratnaketu

Booking: Contact us at justratna@yahoo.com


Getting There is Half the Journey

Say not so Ananda, say not so. It is the whole of the Journey.


Tea at the Yama Cafe - Kushinagar

At least we think so and take extra care to ensure that you go to bed relaxed and happy, and rise fresh to a new day of wonder and delight.

We meet everyone at Arrivals. Our Coaches are good; air-conditioned so we avoid most of the dust, with more seats than we need so we can spread out and move around. The roads between the holy sites are sometimes narrow and bumpy and we occasionally average as little as 15 -20 kms per hour. However, mostly we will be cruising at 40-50 kms per hour through a vast and fascinating countryside. You see the most amazing things at practically every glance and the misty mornings and hazy sunsets can be hauntingly beautiful.

We have a good amount of time at the holy sites and hope to arrive by the late afternoon. Most pilgrimage groups arrive in the late afternoon and leave first-thing the next morning – they travel every day and do the round in 7 or 8 days. If we get into the rhythm of the pilgrimage, and use our time well, we should be able to generate and maintain a solid pilgrimage atmosphere —and have a comfortable, spacious and inspiring Pilgrimage.

We stay in Buddhist Dharamsala’s – pilgrim’s accommodation within Monasteries, mostly in rooms of 4. At some places, we may be able to get a few double rooms.

In addition to our team of Indian and Nepalese helpers, we take our own cooking team, which means we eat well and save time.
Toby serenades aboard the Shiv Ganga Express

The Magic of Pilgrimage



Steve - Being There

Pilgrimage is a very powerful practice. One’s world is turned upside down. One’s imagination is stretched. Sometimes one sees, experiences, or participates in amazing things.

"A Pilgrimage is a journey into a world of myth. Events which have seemed to be shut away behind the closed doors along time's long corridor become as alive and as fresh as if they had happened yesterday. To the pilgrim, everyday reality and imagination are no longer separate: a shape, a noise, an unexpected meeting, can be charged with significance, becoming a symbol of something 'beyond us, yet ourselves'. One dwells more intensely on how one acts within one's environment, and on the effect of that environment upon oneself. Such intense concentration, coupled with reflection on the life of the Buddha and on the lives of the great sages who followed him, brings about a deep sense of faith which flowers as inspiration. The pilgrim gives himself to the pilgrimage with body, speech, and mind, and the fruits of his devotion manifest as virtue. He comes to feel blessed; in the traditional phrase, he feels, 'richly endowed'." From Suvajra’s 'The Wheel and the Diamond

Outwardly, we could say that pilgrimage is a journey through place to meaning. Be they caves, crags, rivers, woods, trees, lakes, springs, shrines, temples or gardens they are haloed places imbued with meaning, charged with significance, surrounded by aura upon aura.

Inwardly, pilgrimage is a journey through meaning to awareness. It is a pilgrimage of mindful thought and reflection leading to moments –mysterious, precious, healing, liberating, inspiring, ungraspable moments.

Secretly, it is a journey through moments of awareness towards continuity of awareness; pure mind: the eternal empty light.



Anne finds herself at home.

Approaching the Holy Sites


Remembering Anathapindaka

Jack Kornfield wrote about a walk he did with Aborigines in Australia. As they approached their holy site, they first walked silent, then proceeded with an ever-deeper bow until they were crawling on hands and knees and finally wriggling along the ground...

The sites we visit are supremely haloed; traditionally credited with the power to heal and bless – even the blessing of Insight. As we draw near, leaving other thoughts aside we repeatedly bring to mind thoughts, images and feelings connected with the events in the life of the Buddha that occurred at that site. Usually we will wend our way in silence, straight to the most holy spot. Often we will stand and sometimes sit in silence. And in the silence really look, seeing the place for the first time with an uncluttered mind. Seeing too in imagination, perhaps as if for the first time, the events that occurred there.

So, we approach and stand or sit in silence. And from our silence perform our puja, sing our songs, dance our jigs, make our offerings salutations circumambulations and prostrations. Then we wander around visiting other important sites, taking in the scene, imagining what it was like when the Buddha was there, or Nagarjuna, or Padmasambhava. Other times we will return to meditate, reflect, make offerings and do puja.



Silaketu in Sariputta's Enlightenment Cave


Parayana - The Way Beyond


Parayana means Going Beyond

When we started the pilgrimage service in 2001, our aim was to create resources for men and women Sramanas – renunciants practicing in simplicity. Still dedicated to Sramanas, Parayana has unexpectedly become an important part of new initiatives taking our Movement into the Buddhist Heartland – the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

Pilgrimage has become another sparkling facet of our Movement. We enable pilgrims to enter the spirit and path of pilgrimage, to gain experiences of India, of the holy places, and of the Refuges that would scarcely otherwise be imaginable. Parayana provides employment, community, and skills training for our team members, and ....



...brings the East and West of our Movement together.

Where The Money Goes

The Parayana Team

Yours is a true pilgrimage – something you co-create, not buy. The traditional method – which we follow – is for the participants to share the costs, and each individual to follow the dictates of the heart when they give.

Costs
Although the commercial value of the pilgrimage is high, the actual costs – aside from airfares, insurance and pre-travel purchases - are remarkably low. India is economical and our Team is likewise. The cost of all meals snacks and drinks, accommodation, transport, Team wages and offerings is likely to be between than 200 and 400 Pounds depending on the size of the group.

Dana
Our Team simply takes minimal wages that support life and provide something for their family. It’s not a business; we don’t seek to make an ordinary profit. We hope to enable you to experience the joy of giving – by keeping costs down; and by enticing you to support projects that we sponsor.

Dana


The Glasgow Buddhist Centre pilgrims gave this little girl a trip to the Hospital.

This year we have several major funding projects; the first is to find two thousand pounds for the young Dhardo Tulku; for rituals that are an important part of his Monastic education.

Then we want to find fifteen hundred pounds to help preserve the cottage on a high ridge above Kalimpong where Bhante received his first Tantric initiation; Green Tara from Chatral Rinpoche. That meeting and Rinpoche’s direct, spontaneous, simple and informal method of introducing and transmitting the Sadhana is the model of our Private Ordination especially the Initiation. Bhante gave Initiation in the same informal way as Chatral Rinpoche gave him Green Tara. Our Private Preceptors continue in the same spirit. The cottage signifies and very much anchors our connection with the ancient Vajrayana tradition of Tibet – especially the Nyingmas. It is in danger of demolition; the cottage. I have persuaded the owner to preserve it on the promise of a donation for substantial repairs.

And this year we are committed to starting a carbon sink; a wood where you actually plant the tree that makes your pilgrimage more eco-friendly.

Our focus however is the new Sramana Trust. Through Sramana, we aim to support men and women renunciants in various ways; chiefly through basic support and accommodation.

Sramana is getting underway in India and is closely associated with the new beginnings of our Movement in the middle land – around the Buddhist Holy places in Bihar and UP. The ancient Buddhist Heartland is now the most backward and poorest part of India. So far, our Movement has had very few activities in Bihar, and indeed, it appears that no other Buddhist organization is actively spreading the Dharma in Bihar – outside a few monastic enclaves.

But things are beginning to change. A team of Order members and Dhammamitras based in Buddhagaya are determined to establish the Movement in Bihar and take the Dharma to the poorest most neglected people in India – slowly slowly. We have started by assembling a team, making connections at the Holy places, sending people on retreat and seeking supporters. Shortly we begin building a base, on our land, in Buddha Gaya.



Sakyamuni's Cremation Stupa
Naryan Gopal distrubtes gifts from Glasgow.


Sakyamuni’s Wanderings

Sakyamuni’s Wanderings
By Ven. S. Dhammika

“According to the Tipitaka, almost the first thing the Buddha did after his enlightenment was to embark on a long journey in order to teach others what he had discovered. Equally significantly, his instructions to his first five disciples was that they should ‘wander forth’ to teach others what he had taught them.

The area in which the Buddha wandered during his life corresponds roughly to the modern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The furthermost east he went which can still be identified is Kajangla (now Kankjol, 18 k south of Rajmahal right on the Indo-Bangladesh border) and the furthermost west he is known to have gone is Mathura, some 180 kilometres south of Delhi. These two locations are nearly a thousand kilometres apart. The Buddha’s movements northwards were of course limited by the then impenetrable jungles of the Himalayan foothills and it is unlikely that he ever went further south than the southern edge of the Ganges watershed. Still, this would mean that his wanderings covered an area roughly equivalent to 200,000 square kilometers, a huge area by any standards.

The evidence suggests that the Buddha only occasionally visited the outer edges of this region. For example, he only visited Mathura once and he probably visited Anga in the east (i.e. Campa, Bhaddiya and Kajangla corresponding to modern Bhagalpur District) only once also. Incidentally, I believe that Bhaddiya or Bhaddiyanagara as it is also sometimes called in the Tipitaka, can be safely identified with the village of Bhadariya some 12 kilometres south of Bhagalpur. However, most of the Buddha’s wanderings took place in the eastern part of this area, between the great cities of Savatthi, Rajagaha, Vesali and Kosambi. The Tipitaka mention carriageways in towns and paths, roads and highways through the countryside. However there is little doubt that these names referred to the frequency of traffic on these arteries, not to the quality of their paving or their width. All roads in ancient India were little more than dusty, rutted tracks in the summer and impassable rivers of mud in the rainy season. Banditry added to the risks of long distance travel.

Travellers on the road between Savatthi and Sakheta were often robbed (Vin, IV: 87) and of course the fearsome Angulimala was a robber and murderer who operated in forested areas around Savatthi. Once the Buddha and an attendant were on tour of Kosala when they came to a fork in the road. The Buddha said they should take one fork while the attendant said they should take the other. This debate continued for some time until in a huff the attendant put the Buddha’s bowl down and walked off on the way he thought correct. He hadn’t gone far before he was attacked by bandits who "struck him with their fists and feet and tore his robe" (Ud, 90). In the more remote districts travelers might have difficulty finding food, water and shelter. The Tipitaka mentions a traveler getting down on all fours to drink from a puddle in a cows footprint because no other water was available and of two parents lost in the wilderness who saved themselves from starvation by killing and eating their child. More normally though travel was just uncomfortable, tedious and undertaken only when necessary. And yet it seems that the Buddha spent most of his time on the road in order to reach as many people as possible. Such was his determination and compassion.

In keeping with the rules laid down by himself and in accordance with long established samana tradition, the Buddha spent three months of the rainy season in one location and the rest of the year on what were called ‘walking tours’. According to the commentarial tradition after the 20th year of his ministry he spent every rainy season in or near Savatthi, the capital of Kosala. The fact that more of his discourses are set in this city that in any other place suggests that there is some foundation in this tradition and if it is true he may have decided to limit his wanderings at that time due to age. He would have been sixty years old at the time. All the Buddha’s journeys were undertaken on foot although, as there are numerous rivers in the lands he knew, he must have often had to use boats or ferries despite there being no specific mention of him ever actually doing this.

We read of monks once crossing a river by holding on to the tails and backs of a herd of cattle that was swimming across the same river suggesting that when there was neither bridges, boats or rafts that the Buddha might have had to improvise as these monks did. There is no mention of the Buddha traveling by carriage or cart. In only one place is he described as wearing sandals, so he probably went bare footed most of the time (Vin, IV: 186).

The Tipitaka mentions the itinerary of many of the Buddha’s journeys giving us an idea of the distances he sometimes traveled. For example, we know that within the first twelve months after his enlightenment he went from Uruvela to Isipatthana via Gaya and Benares, spent the three months of the rainy season there and then travelled to Rajagaha via Benares, Gaya, Uruvela and Lativanna. All these places can be identified with certainly and thus we can calculate that he must have walked at least 300 kilometres. In the longest single journey recorded in the Tipitaka, he went from Rajagaha: to Vesali to Savatthi and back to Rajagaha via Kitigiri and Avali, a round trip of at least 1600 kilometers (Vin, IV, 189). It is likely that he would have started a trip like this at the end of the rains retreat and arrived back in time for the next retreat nine months later. Unfortunately, it is not possible to know how much time these or any of the other journeys might have taken.

In the famous Mahaparinibbana Sutta we know that he went from Rajagaha to Kusinara via Nalanda, Patna and Vesali, a total distance of about 300 kilometres. According to the sutta he left Vesali at the end of the rains retreat (October) and of course he is supposed to have attained final nirvana in Kusinara on the full moon of Vesakha (May). This suggests that he took seven months to travel about 95 kilometres. Even allowing for the fact that he was old and in ill health this seems like a very long time. It should be pointed out that only later texts in the Tipitaka mention that the Buddha’s parinivana took place at Vesakha and the sutta gives the impression that while his last journey was slow it was at a steady pace. However, it seems likely that the Buddha conducted all his journeys at a leisurely pace.

The evidence suggests that he would wake before sunrise, go for pindapata (alms) in the nearest town or village just after sunrise and having eaten, would set off while it was still cool. He would walk until the midday heat became unpleasant and then take an afternoon rest. If there was a village nearby he might stay until the next morning and if not he might continue walking until he got to the next village. How long he stayed at a particular place would have depended on many factors - whether local people came to talk with and listen with him, whether food and water was available, whether the atmosphere was congenial. We know for example that he cut short his first stay in Rajagaha when people began to complain that too many young men were leaving their families to become monks (Vin, IV: 43). Once he arrived in the village of Thuna to find that there was no water to drink because the brahmin inhabitants, hearing that he was coming, had blocked up their wells with rice husks and cow dung (Ud,78). The warm and respectful reception that Buddhist monks get today was not always available to the Buddha and his disciples. He is often described as traveling with either 500 monks (a conventional number meaning ‘a lot’) or simply with "a large group of monks". At other times he would dismiss his attendant and companions telling them that he wanted to wander by himself for a while (S.III:94).

The Buddha was not, as is commonly supposed, primarily a forest dweller. Of the four monasteries he founded and now identified by archaeologists - Ghositarama, Jivakarama, Jetavana and Veluvana - the first is actually inside the walls of the city while the other three are within easy waking distance of their respective cities’. When staying in these places the Buddha’s accommodation would have been reasonably comfortable but when he was on the road the situation was very different and he would have to sleep in or take shelter in whatever was available. We read of him sleeping in a potter’s shed on grass spread on the floor (M.I:502). On another occasion, he arrived in Kapilavatthu and finding no proper lodgings, spent the night in Bharandu’s hermitage sleeping on a mat on the ground (A.I:277). Often he must have simply slept in one of the many mango groves that to this day are still to be seen near most north Indian villages. Finding him out in the open one winter’s night Hattaka asked the Buddha if he was happy. He replied; "Yes my lad, I live happily. Of those who live happily in the world I am one". Hattaka expressed surprise at this, pointing out that it was the dark half of the month, the time of frost, that the ground was trampled hard by the hoofs of the cattle, the carpet of leaves thin, the wind cold and that the Buddha’s robe appeared to be thin. The Buddha reaffirmed that he was nonetheless happy (A.I:136).

The Buddha must have also enjoyed the freedom his life of wandering gave him. For him "the household life is full of hindrances, a path of dust. Free as the wind is the life of one who renounces all worldly things" (D,I:62). However, moving from place to place had very important practical reasons behind it too, in a world without the communications that we take for granted it allowed him to spread his teachings far and wide. He was also aware that some personal contact with him was important, especially for newly ordained monks and nuns, and that this may have been a factor in determining in which districts he visited and how often (S,III:90). During his wanderings he might visit a district, teach, make some disciples, even ordain a few monks or nuns and then perhaps not come again for many years. If a monk from such a district wished to see him again he could simply set off to wherever the Buddha was staying at the time.

Sona Kutikannawas was ordained by Mahakaccana and about a year later developed the desire to meet the man whose teachings he had committed himself to. He said to his preceptor; "I have not yet met the Lord face to face, I have only heard about what he is like. If you give me permission I will travel to see the Lord, the Noble One, the Enlightened Buddha (Ud,58). For lay disciples with domestic obligations undertaking a long journey to see the Buddha would have been more difficult and so they may have had to wait, perhaps many years, before they got to see him again. The Thapataya Sutta gives us some idea of the excitement caused in an outlying district when its inhabitants heard that the Buddha might be on his way to see him and how the excitement increased as word of his gradual approach reached them (S,V:348-349). Elsewhere we read of people’s anxiousness for news about the Buddha and of what he had been teaching.

Once a monk who had spent the rainy season with the Buddha in Savatthi arrived in Kapilavatthu. When people heard where the monk had come from he found himself deluged with questions about the Buddha (S,V:450). On another occasion a group of brahmins from Kosala and Magadha who had arrived in Vesali, heard that the Buddha just happened to be in town and decided that the opportunity to meet him was one that was too good to miss. The Buddha had apparently given his attendant instructions that he was not to be disturbed while the brahmins were adamant that they would not leave until they got to see the famous teacher.

Seeing this impasse, the novice Siha asked the attendant to tell the Buddha that there were three people waiting to see him. The attendant said he would not do this but he wouldn’t object if Siha did. This was done, the Buddha asked Siha to put a mat outside his residence in the shade for him to sit on while he talked to the brahmins (D,I:151). But the Buddha couldn’t be everywhere at once and so monks and nuns would often take long journeys for the privilege of spending some time in his presence. For example once while he was residing in Catuma at least five hundred monks arrived to see him (M,I: 456).

However, with him moving around a lot, it was not always possible to know where he was at any one time. In the beautiful Parayana Vagga of the Sutta Nipata we read of the sixteen disciples of the ascetic Bavari setting out for northern India in the hope of meeting the Buddha. First they heard that he was at Savatthi and "wearing matted hair and dressed in deer skin" they headed there. They went through Kosambi and Saketa and arrived in Savatthi only to find that he had left some time previously. They followed his route through Setavya, Kapilavatthu, Kusinara, Pava and Vesali finally catching up with him at the Pasanaka Shrine, (Barabar Hills north of Gaya) "and like a thirsty man going for cool water, like merchants going for profit, like a heat exhausted man going for shade, they quickly ascended the mountain" (Sn 1014).

Buddhist Women 1

Buddhist Women 1
Dr. Bimala Churn Law, Ph.D.



An account of some famous women who figure prominently in the early Buddhist texts is given in the following pages. The account will show that women were not a negligible factor in the ancient Buddhist community of India.

Abhirupananda was the daughter of a Sakya noble named Khemaka. She was called Nanda the Fair because of her great beauty and amiability. Her beloved kinsman, Carabhuta, died on the day on which she was to choose him from amongst her suitors. She had to leave the world against her will. Though she entered the order, she could not forget that she was beautiful. Fearing that, the Buddha would rebuke her, she used to avoid his presence. The Buddha knew that the time had come for her to acquire knowledge and asked Mahapajapati Gotami to bring all the bhikkhunis before him to receive instruction. Nanda sent a proxy for her. The Buddha said, "Let no one come by proxy." So, she was compelled to come to him. The Buddha by his supernatural power conjured up a beautiful woman, who became transformed into an old and fading figure. It had the desired effect, and Abhirupananda became an arhat. (Therigatha Commy., pp. 25-26.)

Jenti or Jenta was born in a princely family of the Licchavis at Vaisali. She won arhatship after hearing the Dharma preached by the Buddha. She developed the seven Sambojjhangas. (Ibid., p.27).

Citta was born at Rajagaha in the family of a leading burgess. One day when she was of age, she heard the master preach and believed in his doctrine. She was ordained by Mahapajapati Gotami. In her old age she climbed the vulture's peak and lived like a recluse. Her insight expanded and she won arhatship. (Ibid., p.33.)

Sukka was born at Rajagaha in the family of a rich householder. When she attained the years of discretion she believed in the Master's teaching and became a lay disciple. One day she heard Dharmadinna preach and was so greatly moved that she renounced the world and followed Dharmadinna. She performed all the exercises for acquiring insight and very soon attained arhatship with patisambhida. Thereupon she became a great preacher and was attended by 500 bhikkhus. One day, along with the other bhikkhunis, she went to the hermitage of the bhikkhunis and taught the Buddha's doctrine in such a way that everybody listened to her with rapt attention; even a tree-spirit was so much moved that it began to praise her. At this the people were excited and came to the sister and listened attentively. (Ibid., pp.57-61.)

Sela was born in the kingdom of Alavi, as the king's daughter. She was also known as Alavika. One day, while yet a maid, she went with the king and heard the Master preach. She became a believer and lay disciple. A few days after, she took orders and performed the exercises for insight. She subjugated the complexities of thought, word and deed and soon won arhatship. Thereafter she lived at Savatthi when the Buddha was there. She entered the Andhavana forest to meditate after finishing her midday meal. Mara once tried in vain to persuade her to choose the sensuous life (Ibid., p.61, f. Cf. Samyutta Nikaya, part 1, p.128).

Siha was born at Vesali as the daughter of General Siha's sister. She was named after her maternal uncle. When she grew up, she heard the Master teaching the Norm to her maternal uncle and became a believer. She was permitted by her parents to enter the order. For seven years she could not acquire insight as her mind was always inclined to objects of external charm. Then she intended to die. She took a noose, hung it round the bough of a tree and fastened it round her neck. Thus she succeeded in impelling her mind to insight which grew within and she won arhatahip. She then took off the rope from her neck and went back to her hermitage. (Ibid., pp.79-80).

Sundari Nanda was born in the royal family of the Sakyas. She was known as the beautiful Nanda. Thinking about the fact that her elder brother, her mother, her brother, her sister and her nephew had renounced the world, she too left it. Even after her renunciation, she was obsessed with the idea of her beauty and would not approach the Lord lest she should be reproached for her folly. The Lord taught her in the same way as he did in the case of Nanda the Fair. She listened to the Master's teaching and enjoyed the benefit of the fruition of the first stage of sanctification. He then instructed her saying, "Nanda, there is in this body not even the smallest essence. It is but a heap of bones covered with flesh and besmeared with blood under the shadow of decay and death." Afterwards she became an arhat. (Ibid., pp.80 f.; cf. Manora- thapurani, pp. 217-218).

Khema was born in the royal family of Sagala. She was very beautiful and her skin was like gold. She became the consort of Bimbisara. One day she heard that the Buddha was in the habit of speaking ill of beauty, since then she did not appear before the Buddha. The king was a chief supporter of the Buddha. He asked his court-poets to compose a song on the glories of the Veluvana hermitage and to sing the song very loudly so that the queen might hear it. The royal order was carried out. Khema heard of the beauty of the hermitage and with the king's consent she came to the Veluvana Vihara, where the Buddha was staying at that time. When she was led before the Buddha, the latter conjured up a woman in the form of a celestial nymph who stood fanning him with a palm leaf. Khema observed that this woman was more beautiful than her and she was ashamed of her own vanity. Sometime after she noticed again that the woman was passing from youth to middle age and then to old age, till with broken teeth, grey hair, and wrinkled skin, she fell on earth with her palm leaf. Then thought Khema; “my beautiful body will meet with the same fate as that of the nymph.” Then the Master, who knew her thoughts, said that persons subject to lust suffer from the result of their action, while those freed from all bondage forsake the world.

When the Master had finished speaking, Khema, according to the commentary, attained arhatship while according to the Apadana, she was established in the fruition of the first stage of sanctification and, with the king's permission, entered the order before she became an arhat. Thereafter she made a name for her insight and was ranked foremost amongst the bhikkhunis possessing great wisdom. In vain Mara tried to tempt her with sensuous ideas. (Ibid., pp. 126 f.; cf. Manorathapurani, p.205; cf. Anguttara, n. 1, p.25).

Anopama was the daughter of a banker named Majjha living in Saketa. She was of unique beauty. She was courted by many sons of bankers, higher officers of the State, but she thought that there was no happiness in household life. She went to the Master and heard his teachings. Her intelligence matured. She strove hard for insight and was established in the third fruition. On the seventh day thereafter she attained arhatship. (Ibid., pp.138-139.)

Rohini was born at Vesali in the house of a very prosperous Brahman. When grown up she went to the Master and heard him preach the doctrine. She obtained sotapattiphalam. She converted her parents to Buddha's faith and got permission from them to entered the order. She performed the exercises for acquiring insight and very soon attained arhatship (Ibid., pp.214 f.)

Subha was the daughter of a certain goldsmith of Rajagaha. She was very beautiful and was therefore called Subha. When grown up she saw the Master and believed in his doctrine. The Master saw the maturity of her moral faculties and taught her the Dharma. She was afterwards established in the fruition of the first stage of sanctification. Thereafter she entered the order under Mahapajapafi Gotami. She strove hard for insight and in course of time she won arhatship. (Ibid., pp.236 f.).

Tissa was born at Kapilavastu among the Sakyas. She renounced the world with Mahapajapati Gotami and became spiritually so developed that she attained arhatship. (Ibid., pp.11-13)

Sumedha, daughter of King Konca of Mantavati, was averse to the pleasures of senses from her childhood. She renounced the world hearing the doctrine of the Buddha from the bhikkhunis. Very soon she acquired insight and attained arhatship (Ibid., 272 f.)

Visakha was the daughter of Sumanadevi, wife of Dhananjayasetthi, son of Mundakasetthi. Her abode was at Bhaddiyanagara in the kingdom of Anga. When she was seven years old, the Buddha with the bhikkhu sangha went to Bhaddiyanagara. Sumanadevi was one of the advisers of the king. Visakha with 500 female companions and 500 chariots received the Buddha, who gave instructions to her according to her nature and she obtained the fruit of Stream Entry. The Buddha was invited to Visakha's house. Visakha who was endowed with five kinds of beauty was married to Punnavaddhana of Savatthi. The presents sent by the citizens of Savatthi for her, were distributed by her among the citizens with great courtesy. She made the citizens her own relatives. She refused to salute the naked heretics who were worshipped by her father-in-law. Her father-in-law was converted to Buddhism through her efforts. Once Visakha invited the bhikkhus and her father-in-law on hearing the sermon obtained the fruit of Stream Entry (D.C., I, 384 f.)

On the death of her grandchild, who was very dear to her, Visakha went to see the Buddha with clothes and hair wet with grief. The Buddha asked her whether she would be satisfied if all the people of Savatthi became her sons and grandsons. She replied in the affirmative. The Master asked her how many people met with their death at Savatthi. Visakha said from one to ten. The Buddha told her, " Just think, would you ever be free from wet clothes and wet hair"? Visakha understood and said that she did not want so many sons and grandsons, because acquisition of more sons and grandsons would bring greater suffering (Udana, 91-92).

Visakha, mother of Migara, was the foremost of the female supporters of the Buddha (A.N., 1, p. 26). Once on a sabbath day she went to the Buddha while the latter was in her monastery named Pubbarama. Buddha instructed Visakha thus, "There were three kinds of uposatha and the ariya uposatha is the best of the uposathas. The Master then said that in order to observe ariya uposatha one should meditate on the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Rules of training must be unbroken and fully observed. One should also meditate on the qualities of the gods. One should follow Arhats who follow precepts throughout their lives. By observing ariya uposatha one may obtain great happiness and may be reborn in one of the heavens commencing from the Catumaharajika to the Paranimmittavasavatti and enjoy great celestial happiness there (A.N., I, 205-215). Visakha was further instructed by the Buddha thus, "Dependence on others is suffering, independence brings happiness". (Udana, p.18).

Visakha once blamed the bhikkhus for not allowing her grandson to be ordained during the lent, as owing to this delay her grandson's mind was changed. (Vinaya Pitaka, 1, 153.) She once went to the Buddha and invited him together with the bhikkhus to take food at her house the next morning. Heavy rains fell on the following morning and the bhikkhus, as they had no bathing costumes, bathed themselves naked. Visakha came to know this fact from her maid servant who was sent to call the bhikkhus. The Buddha together with the bhikkhus came to her house. She fed the Buddha, and the bhikkhus satisfactorily. After they had finished their meal, Visakha prayed to the Buddha for the following boons:--As long as she lived, she would give garments for the rainy season to the bhikkhus, food to the guests and food to those going abroad, diet to the sick bhikkhus, food to the sick-- nurses, medicine for the sick bhikkhus, rice gruel to the bhikkhus daily and bathing garments to the bhikkhunis (V.P., vol. 1, pp.290-292). From this fact it is evident that Visakha introduced bathing garments for the bhikkhunis. It was Visakha who offered to the Buddha a napkin which he accepted. (V.P., 1, 296).

We are further informed that Visakha, as soon as she heard of the arrival of the quarreling Kosambian bhikkhus, approached the Buddha to take his advice as to how she should deal with them. The Buddha advised her to offer charities to the two parties of the quarreling Kosambian monks, (V.P.,1, 356). Visakha prepared a golden water-pot for the Buddha. A samanera named Sumana brought water in that pot for the Buddha from Anotatta lake. (D.C., IV, P.135) She offered a water pot and a broom to the Buddha, which he accepted and also instructed the bhikkhus to use them. Once she went to the Buddha and offered a palm-leaf fan, which he accepted (V.P., II, 129-130). Visakha was so very kind to the bhikkhus that she built a mansion for them, The bhikkhus at first hesitated to use it, but afterwards asked for Buddha's permission which was granted. (V.P., II, 169).

Visakha once went to the hermitage of Khadiravaniyarevata, but she found it to be in the midst of thorns and not fit for human habitation. (D.C., II, 194-195). Visakha was an important personage, because among the Bhikkhus if there were any matter for reference, it was referred to her, as we find in the case of Kundadhanathera who used to walk about with a woman behind him. (D.C.,111, 54-55.) In the family of Visakha young girls used to serve the Bhikkhus by making arrangements for their food, etc. (D.C., III, 161). Visakha's son's daughter named Datta, who was entrusted with the care of the Bhikkhu sangha, died in her absence. Visakha was very much afflicted with grief. The Buddha, consoled her (D.C., III, pp.278-279).

Visakha was one day going to the city garden wearing all sorts of rich ornaments amongst which may be mentioned mahalata, an ornament of extraordinary beauty and of immense value. (Cf. Dharmapada Commy., I, 412.) On the way she thought why should she go to the city garden like a mere girl; it was better that she should go to the Vihara and listen to the discourses of the Buddha. Moved by the thought, she went to the Lord, put off her ornament, mahalata and gave it to her maid-servant to keep it and return it when she came out of the Vihara. Thereafter she listened to the noble discourses of the Buddha. On coming out of the Vihara, she asked for her ornament. The maid-servant said that she had left it in the Vihara. Both of them returned to the Vihara and found it. Visakha offered it to the Lord, and under his directions built a Vihara with the sale proceeds of the ornament, which amounted to nine crores and a lakh. Visakha offered to her maid-servant all the merit that accrued for constructing the Vihara. The latter approved of her charity and died shortly afterwards. (Vimanavatthu Commy., pp.187-189.)

Anula was the queen of the king of Ceylon. Surrounded by five hundred girls, she bowed to the senior monks and honoured them to her heart's content. Thera Mahinda preached Dharma to them. Preta stories, Vimana stories and Saccasamyutta were narrated to them. When they heard the most excellent portion of the doctrine, princess Anula and her five hundred attendants attained Stream Entry. She became a believer in the Buddha, Dharma and the Sangha. With her five hundred attendants she received the Pabbajja ordination from Sanghamitta Mahatheri. (Dipavamsa, p.68; cf. Mahavamsa, Geiger's Text, pp. 108, 155.)

Gopika was a Sakya princess. She was pleased with the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. She used to observe precepts fully, became disgusted with female life and meditated in order to become a man. (Digha N., II, 271.)

Canda came of a Brahman family. She earned her living by begging from door to door. One day she came to the spot where Patacara had just finished her meal. The bhikkhuni saw her hungry and gave her some food to eat. She ate the food and took her seat on one side. She then listened to the discourse of the Theri and renounced the world. She practised hard to attain insight. Her knowledge matured and her determination was strong. Hence she succeeded in attaining arhatship with patisambhida (Th. Commy., pp. 120-121.)

Gutta came of a Brahman family at Savatthi. In her youth household life became repugnant to her. She obtained her parents' consent and entered the order under Mahapajapati Gotami. Thereafter she could not for sometime control her mind from external interests. Then the Master gave her suitable instructions, and she attained arhatship together with patisambhida. (Th. Commy., pp. 157-159.)

Vijaya came of a certain clansmen's family of Rajagaha. She was a friend of Khema. When she heard that Khema, a king's consort, had renounced the world, she went to Khema, who taught her the Norm and ordained her. Very soon she won insight and after a short time attained arhatship with analytical knowledge. (Th. Commy, pp.159-160.) Mara came, to tempt her by saying, "You are young and beautiful, I am also young and beautiful, let us enjoy ourselves with music." She replied, "I find no delight in rupa, sadda, gandha, etc. and I don't like soft-touch. I hate very much my rotten body that is easily destructible. My ignorance is dispelled." Then Mara left her. (S.N., 1, pp. 130-131).

Cala, Upacala and Sisupacala were born in Magadha at the village of Nalaka as the children of a Brahmani named Surupasari. They were younger sisters of Sariputta. When they heard that their brother had left the world for the order, they too renounced the world and striving hard, attained arhatship. In vain, Mara tried to stir up sensual desires in them. (Th. Commy., 162-163; cf. S.N., Pt. I, PP. 132-134).

Uppalavanna came of a banker's family at Savatthi. Her skin was of the colour of the heart (gabbha) of the blue lotus. Hence she was called Uppalavanna. Many princes and banker's sons wanted to marry her. But she renounced the world, went to the bhikkhunis and was ordained. Thereafter one day she lighted a lamp, and by continually contemplating on the flame of the lamp, she gradually obtained arhatship with adhinna and patisambhida. (Th. Commy., 182 ff.) She was assigned a chief place among those who had the gift of iddhi. (Manorathapurani, p.207 ff.; Anguttara N., I, 25).

The Samyutta Nikaya tells us that Theri Uppalavanna went to the Andhavana forest to meditate. There she sat at the foot of the Sala tree. Mara came to her and said to her, "You are sitting at the foot of a fully blossomed Sala tree, are you not afraid of the wicked?" She replied, "I do not care for the wicked. I do not care for you." Mara left her. (Pt. 1, pp. 131-132). After defeating Mara, Uppalavanna was molested by her maternal uncle's son Ananda, who was enamoured of her beauty and who wanted to marry her. Although Uppalavanna had become a bhikkhuni, Ananda could not give up the desire of marrying her. Once Ananda concealed himself in the room of the Theri under her bedstead in her absence. When the Theri returned home and lay herself down on the bedstead, Ananda suddenly came out and committed rape on her. The Theri informed the bhikkhunis of this fact, and the bhikkhunis brought this to the notice of the Buddha, who prohibited the bhikkhunis from living in forests. (D.C., II, 48-51.) Uppalavanna Theri acquired the power of performing a miracle by coming in to the presence of the Buddha to worship him with the pomp and grandeur of an individual monarch, being surrounded by a retinue extending over 36,000 yojanas and this miracle was visible to an assembly extending over twelve yojanas. (D.C., III, P.211.)

Sumangalamata came of a poor family of Savatthi. She was married to a basket maker. She acquired great merit. One day while reflecting on all she had suffered, she was much affected and her insight quickening, she attained arhatship with analytical knowledge. (Th. Commy., 28-30.)

Punna or Punnika acquired great merit in her previous birth, but owing to her pride she could not root out the klesas (sins). She was born of a domestic slave at Savatthi in the household of Anathapindika, the banker. She obtained the fruit of Stream Entry after hearing the Sihanada Suttanta. Afterwards Anathapindika gave her freedom because she defeated in debate a Brahman named Udakasuddhika. Punna renounced worldly life and entered the order. She practised insight and very soon attained arhatship with patisambhida. (Th. Commy., pp. 199 f.).

Sundari was born at Benares as the daughter of Sujata, a Brahman. On her brother's death, her father became overwhelmed with grief. With the advice of Theri Vasitthi her father renounced the world, met the Buddha at Mithila, entered the order and in course of time attained arhatship. Sundari heard of her father's renouncing the world. She sacrificed all her wealth and pleasures of all kinds. She secured her mother's consent to leave the world. She then entered the order and striving hard she attained arhatship with patisambhida (Th. Commy., 228 f.).

Vimala was born at Vesali as the daughter of a public woman. One day when advanced in years, she was attracted by venerable Mahamoggallana who was going about for alms. She went to his house to entice him. Mahamoggallana rebuked her. She was ashamed and became a believer and lay sister. Sometime affer she entered the order and very soon attained arhatship. (Th. Commy., 76-77.)

Buddhist Women 2

Dr. Bimala Churn Law, Ph.D.

Mittakalika came of a Brahman's family in the town of Kammasadamma in the kingdom of the Kurus. When she grew up she one day heard the teaching of the Great Discourse on the Mahasatipatthana and entered the order of sisters. For seven years she could not elevate herself intellectually. Later on she won arhatship together with analytical knowledge. (Th. Commy., pp. 89-90).

Sakula (Pakula) was born in a Brahman family at Savatthi. Seeing the Master accepting the gift of the Jetavana, she became a believer. One day she heard the preaching of an arhat and was greatly convinced. She entered the order, strove hard for insight and soon won arhatship. She was given the foremost place by the Master among the bhikkhunis possessing divine eyes. (Th. Commy., pp. 91 f.; cf. Manorathapurani, pp. 219-220; cf. Anguttara N., I, 25.)

Sonadinna, a female devotee living in Nalanda used to serve the bhikkhus with the four requisites and used to observe the precept and uposatha with perfect regularity. She meditated on the four noble truths and attained sotapatti. (Vide my work, Heaven and Hell, p.53).

Aloma, a poor woman living at Savatthi in Benares not finding anything to offer, presented some rotten cooked rice without salt to the Buddha who accepted it. (Ibid., p.63).

Mutta came of a rich Brahman family of Savatthi. When she was twenty years old, she went to Mahapajapati the Gotami and got ordination from her. She was practising kammatthana and she was instructed by the Buddha to get herself free from all bonds. Afterwards she became an arhat. (Th. Commy., pp.8-9.)

Punna was the daughter of a leading citizen of Savatthi, When she was about twenty years of age, she heard the great Pajapati teach the doctrine, and renounced the world. She practised insight, being encouraged by the Master. In due course she attained arhatship. (Th. Commy., pp. 9-10.)

Dantika came of a Brahmin’s family at Kosala. When she came of age, she acquired faith in the Buddha in the Jetavana, and later entered the order under Mahapajapati Gotami at Rajagaha. While staying at Rajagaha, she climbed the Vulture's Peak after her meal, and while resting she developed insight and soon obtained arhatship with analytical knowledge. (Th. Commy., pp. 51-52.)

Vaddhesi was the nurse of Mahapajapati Gotami. When her mistress renounced the world, she followed her. For twenty-five years she was harassed by the lusts of the senses and failed to acquire concentration of mind. One day she heard Dhammadinna preach the Norm. She then began to practice meditation. Very soon she acquired the six supernatural powers. (Th. Commy., 75-76).

Uttama came of a householder family at Bandhumati. When she grew old, she heard the nun Patacara preach and entered the order. When Patacara gave her admonition, she was established in insight and very soon won arhatship. (Th. Commy., pp. 47-48). Thirty sisters born in different families of different places heard Patacara preach and were converted by her and entered the order. They practised insight and in course of time they won arhatship with patisambhida. (Th. Commy., pp.118-120.)

Uttara came of a certain clansmen's family at Savatthi. When grown up she heard Patacara preach the Norm. She became a believer, entered the Order and became an arhat. (Th. Commy, pp.161-162.)

Uttari was a theri who was 120 years old. She went to beg for alms. Once, while going for alms, she met the Buddha on the way and when going to salute him, she fell down. The Buddha delivered a sermon to her, and she having attained the first stage of sanctification died. (D.C., vol. III, p.110.)

Khujjuttara was the maid servant of Samavati, queen of King Udena of Kosambi. Her daily duty was to buy flowers from Sumana, a garland-maker for eight kahapanas. Once the Buddha together with the bhikkhu sangha was invited to take meals in Sumana's house. Khujjuttara waited on her and heard the sermon delivered by the Buddha. She obtained the fruit of Stream Entry after hearing the sermon. In former days she used to steal four kahapanas out of the eight kahapanas given to her by her mistress for buying flowers. After having obtained the fruit of Stream Entry she brought flowers to the value of eight kahapanas. She confessed her guilt when asked why she brought such a large quantity of flowers. She told Samavati that after listening to the Buddha's sermon she had acquired knowledge and came to realise that stealing things is a sin. Samavati after listening to the dhamma repeated by Khujjuttara also obtained the fruit of Stream Entry. She was well versed in Tripitaka. (D.C., I, pp.208 f.)

Dinna was an upaisika of the Buddha. She was the queen of King Uggasena. A king promised to the deity of a nigrodha tree that he would worship the deity with the blood of one hundred Royals of Jambudipa (India) if he got the throne after his father's death. He then gradually defeated all the kings and princes and went to worship the deity, but the deity, seeing that many kings would be killed, felt compassion for them and refused his worship on the grounds that Dinna the queen of King Uggasena, whom he had defeated, was not present. The king had her brought, and Dinna preached a sermon on the avoidance of killing in their presence. The deity approved and the king refrained from killing and released the defeated and captured kings, who all praised Dinna for this act. It was due to her that so many kings were saved. (D.C., II, p.15 f.)

Sona came of a clansmen's family at Savatthi. In course of time, after marriage, she became the mother of ten sons and was known as Bahuputtika. The Dhammapada Commy. says that she had seven sons and seven daughters (D.C., II, pp.276--278). When her husband renounced the world, she divided all her riches equally between her sons. In a very short time her sons and daughters-in-law ceased to show respect. She then entered the Order of the bhikkhunis and began to practise insight strenuously in her old age. The master gave her suitable instructions. Sona Bhikkhuni then attained arhatship. (Th. Commy,, 95.) She occupied the foremost place among the bhikkhunis, making great exertion (Manorathapurani, 218-219; cf. A.N., I, 125).

Bhadda Kundalakesa came of the family of a banker at Rajagaha. When grown up, she one day saw Satthuka, the Brahmin's son, being led to execution by the city guard. She fell in love with him at first sight. She resolved to die if she did not get him. Her father heard of this and got Satthuka released by heavily bribing the guards. Satthuka was brought to Bhadda, who, decked in jewels, waited upon him. He saw her jewels and coveted them. He told Bhadda to get ready an offering to be given to the cliff deity. Bhadda did so. She adorned herself with all her jewels and accompanied her husband to the precipice with an offering. On reaching the top of the precipice, Satthuka told her to put off all her ornaments, which he had planned to take. In vain Bhadda pleaded that she herself and all her ornaments belonged to him. Satthuka did not take any notice of her pleadings. He wanted all her ornaments. Bhadda then prayed for an embrace with all her jewels on.

Satthuka granted her prayer. Bhadda embraced him in front and then, as if embracing him from the back, pushed him over the precipice. Satthuka died (cf. Dhammapada Commy., vol. II, pp.217 f.). Thereafter Bhadda did not come home, but she left the world and entered the Order of the Niganthas - Jains. She learnt the doctrine of the Niganthas and left their company. Thereafter she found no one equal to her in debate. She setup the branch of a jambu tree on a heap of sand at the gate of some village or town, with the declaration that any body able to join issue with her in debate should trample on this bough. Sariputta ordered some children who were near the bough, to trample on it. The children did so. When Bhadda saw the bough trampled, she challenged Sariputa to a debate before some Sakyan recluses, she was defeated and advised to go to Buddha for refuge. She went to the Buddha who discerned the maturity of her knowledge. Buddha spoke a verse and she attained arhatship with analytical knowledge. (Th. Commy., pp. 99f.) Bhadda was assigned a chief place among the bhikkhunis possessing ready wit. (Manorathapurani, p. 375; cf. Anguttara Nikaya, I, 25.)

Sama came of a rich householder's family at Kosambi. She was moved by the death of her dear friend, the lay-disciple Samavati. One day she listened to Elder Ananda preaching and acquired insight. On the seventh day after this she attained arhatship with a thorough grasp of the Dhamma - in form and meaning. (Th. Commy., 44-45.)

Another Sama who came of a clansmen's family at Kosambi, was a friend of Samavati, whose death afflicted her so much that she could not gain self-control for twenty-five years. In her old age she heard a sermon through which her insight expanded and she won arhatship with patisambhida (analytical knowledge). (Th. Commy., 45-46.)

Ubbiri came of the family of a rich house-holder at Savatthi. She was very beautiful, and was brought to the palace by the king of Kosala. A few years later a daughter was born to her. This daughter was named Jiva. The king saw the child and was very much pleased. He then had Ubbiri anointed as queen. After a few years Jiva died. The mother used to go to the cemetery and shed tears. Questioned by the Exalted One as to why she was weeping, she said that she was sheding tears for her deceased daughter. She was questioned by the Exalted One as to which of her 84,000 daughters she was weeping for. She then spent a little thought and intelligence over the Norm thus taught by the Buddha. She was established in insight, and in due course she won arhatship by virtue of great merits. (Th. Commy.,53-54).

Kisagotami came of poor family at Savatthi. She was married to a rich banker's son who had forty crores of wealth. (D.C., II., pp. 270-75). Bodhisatta was her maternal uncle's son. One day, while the Bodhisatta was returning home after receiving the news of Rahula's birth, he was seen by Kisagotami from her palace. Buddha's beauty pleased Kisagotami so much that she uttered a stanza, the purport of which is, "the mother who has such a child and the father who has such a son and the wife who has such a husband are surely happy" (nibbuta), but the Bodhisatta took the word nibbuta in the sense of nibbanam. The Bodhisatta presented her with a pearl necklace for making him hear such auspicious and sacred words. (D.C., vol. I, p. 85; cf. Atthasalini, p. 34.) On the death of her only child she went to the Buddha with the dead body and requested him to bring the dead to life. Buddha asked her to bring a little mustard seed from a house where no man had died. Kisagotami went from house to house, but she came back to Buddha quite unsuccessful. The Buddha delivered a sermon which led her to become a bhikkhuni. Her insight grew within a short time and she attained arhatship. (Th. Commy., 174 f.). Then the master assigned her the foremost place among the bhikkhunis who used very rough and simple robes. (A.N., 1, p.25; cf.,Manoratha; purani, p.380.)

Once Kisagotami went to the Andhavana forest to meditate. Mara, came to her and said," You have killed your sons and now you are crying. Why are you not searching for another man? " Kisagotami replied, "I have completely destroyed my sons and my husband and I have no sorrow. I am not afraid of you, my attachment is destroyed and ignorance is dispelled. Killing the army of death I live sinless." Mara then left her. (S.N., I, pp.129-130). Once Kisagotami was coming through the sky to worship the Buddha while the god Sakka with his retinue was seated before the Buddha. She did not come to the Buddha, but worshipped him from the sky and went away. Being questioned by Sakka, the Buddha answered that she was his daughter. (D.C.,IV, 156-157.)

Patacara came of a banker's family at Savatthi. In her youth, she formed an intimacy with a servant of her house. On the day fixed for her marriage with another youth of equal rank to her she eloped with her lover and dwelt in a hamlet. There she used to perform household duties, and her lover used to bring wood from the forest and worked in a field belonging to others. Shortly afterwards Patacara gave birth to a child, but at the time of the birth of her second child, a storm arose. Her husband went to a forest to cut grass and sticks. While he cut a stake standing on an ant-hill, a snake came from the ant-hill and bit him. He fell there and died. The next morning Patacara went to the forest with her two children and found her husband dead. She lamented and left the place. On her way to her father's house there was a river, the water of which was knee-deep. She lost her children while crossing the river. With tears of grief, she came to Savatthi and learnt that her parents and brother had perished under the debris of the fallen house. She turned mad. Since then she did not wear clothing, and was therefore known as Patacara. One day the Exalted One saw her in that plight and said, "Sister! Cover your shamelessness." She regained her consciousness, and the Lord taught her that sons, parents and kinsfolk were no shelter, and asked her to discern this truth in order to make clear quickly the way to nibbana. Then she was established in the fruit of Stream Entry. Then she attained arhatship with analytical knowledge (Th. Commy., p.108 f; Manorathapurani, pp.356-360; cf. A.N., I, 25) Thereafter she preached the Buddha's dhamma and converted many afflicted women to the Buddhist faith.

The Therigatha Commy. says that Patacara had five hundred female disciples, who came of different families of different places. They were women who had married, borne children and lived domestic lives, but who had suffered loss. Overwhelmed with grief at the loss of children they went to Patacara, who asked them not to weep when the nature of birth and death was unknown to them. They were greatly moved by Patacara's teachings and renounced the world under her. They performed exercises for insight and soon became established in arhatship with patisambhida. (Th. Commy., pp. 122-123; cf. Dhammapada Commy., II, p.260 f.)

Buddhist Women 3

Dr. Bimala Churn Law, Ph.D.

Vasitthi came of a clansmen's family at Vaisali. Her parents gave her in marriage to a clansman's son of equal position. She had a son. When the child was able to run about, he died. Vasitthi went mad with grief. She came to Mithila and there she saw the Exalted One, self-controlled and self-contained. At the sight of the Buddha the frenzy left her and she recovered her normal mind. The master taught her the outlines of the Norm. Performing all proper duties, she acquired insight, and struggling with the help of full Knowledge, she soon attained arhatship together with a thorough grasp of the Norm in form and spirit. (Th. Commy., 124-125.)

Dhammadinna came of a clansmen's family at Rajagaha and became the wife of a Setthi named Visakha. One day her husband heard the master teaching, and after hearing him he did not hold converse with her as he used to do before, but renounced the worldly life. Dhammadinna too became a bhikkhuni and took up her residence in a village. One of the great merits acquired in her previous births was her subjugation of the complexities of thought, word and deed. By virtue of this merit, she soon attained arhatship together with thorough mastery of the form and meaning of the Dhamma. Then she returned to Rajagaha and was questioned by her husband on the skandhas and the like. She answered so correctly that she was praised by the Buddha and was ranked as foremost among the sisters who could preach. (Th. Commy., 15; cf. Manorathpurani, pp. 360-363; Anjuttara N., I, 25.)

Dhamma came of a respectable family at Savatthi. Given in marriage to a suitable husband, she became converted. On her husband's death, she entered the Order. In due course she won arhatship with thorough knowledge of the Norm in form and meaning. (Th. Commy., p.23).

Mettika was the daughter of a rich Brahman of Rajagaha. She climbed a hill and lived like a recluse. She acquired insight and within a short time won arhatship (Th. Commy., p.35).

Abhaya came of a respectable family at Ujjain. She was a friend of Abhayamata. She followed her in renouncing the world, and entered the Order. In course of time she attained arhatship at Rajagaha. (Th. Commy., 41-43.)

Soma was born at Rajagaha as the daughter of the Brahmin of King Bimbisara. When advanced in years she became a lay disciple. Afterwards she entered the order of the bhikkhunis. She performed exercises of insight and within a short time won arhatship. Mara tried in vain to divert her from this path. From the Samyutta Nikaya we learn that Mara came to her and said, "That which is to be obtained by the Rishis, you are, with slight wisdom, trying to gain. That which is difficult to be obtained by great sages, you being a silly woman, want to have." She replied: " If my mind is steadfast, I must acquire it, my womanly nature will not prevent me from acquiring it." Mara then left her. (Th. Commy., pp. 66-67; cf. S.N., 1, p.129.)

Bhadda Kapilani came of a Brahman family of the Kosiya clan at Sagala. She was married to a young noble Pippali at the village of Mahatittha. When her husband renounced the world, she made over her wealth to her kinsfolk. She then left the world and dwelt five years in the hermitage of the heretics. Thereafter, she was ordained by Mahapajapati Gotami. Establishing insight she soon won arhatship. By the master she was ranked first among the bhikkhunis who could remember previous births (Th. Commy., 67 f.; cf. Manorathapurani, p.375; cf. Anguttara N., I, p.25).

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Besides the women who embraced a homeless life and became bhikkhunis and theris, there were others who were staunch believers in the Buddha's dhamma. These women used to lead a domestic life, offering charities in the shape of coin and kind to theras, bhikkhunis and bhikkhus in the expectation of a happier rebirth or for the benefit of departed relations. The incidents in the life of some of these women are recorded in the Buddhist literature, and it would not be out of place here to mention them below.

Uttara, daughter of Nandaka, Commander-in-chief of Pingala, king of Surattha, was a believer in the Buddha. She used to offer to a saintly thera cold and perfumed drink as well as excellent cake and sweets for the benefit of her departed father. (Vide my Buddhist Conception of Spirits, p.48).

Lakhuma lived near one of the gates of Benares. She used to offer a spoonful of rice to the bhikkhus when they entered the town by that gate. Thus she acquired the habit of offering charity. In the asanasala (rest house), she used to prepare seats for, and supply water to, the bhikkhus. She was established in Stream Entry. After death she was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. (Vide my Heaven and Hell, p.50.)

A daughter of a certain upasaka of Rajagaha was very much devoted to Mahamoggallana. One day she welcomed the thera, offered him a seat, worshipped him with a garland of sumana flower and gave him sweets, etc. On her death, she was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. (Vimanavatthu Commy., 179-179.)

Mallilka was the daughter of a Brahman steward of the Sakya Mahanaman. On her father's death she was taken by Mahanaman to his house. She was at first named Chandra. She made a wreath which satisfied Mahanaman so much that he changed her name to Mallika. One day Mallika went to the garden with her food, and just then the Blessed One passed them collecting alms. Mallika thought of offering her food to the Buddha, and the latter knowing her thought held out his bowl. She put her offering in it and wished at the same time that some day she might be free from slavery or poverty. One day Pasenadi carried away by his horse in the heat of the chase came to Mahanaman's garden. There he saw Mallika. Re- quested by the king, Mallika rubbed his feet with a towel. As soon as she did so the king fell asleep. When he awoke he found out who she was, went to Mahanaman and married her. She was then taken to Sravasti and in time she brought forth a son named Virudhaka (Rockhill, Life of the Buddha, pp, 75-77), and also a daughter. (S.N., I, p. 86). This story is nothing but a Tibetan version of the story of Pasenadi and Vasabhakhattiya. Cf. Svapnavasabhadatta of Bhasa.

Again we read that Mallikadevi went to the Buddha and asked him thus, "What is the cause of a woman's getting an ugly appearance, bad habit, wretched state and poverty in this world? What is the cause of a woman who is of this nature becoming very rich and influential? What is the cause of a woman who is of good appearance and lovely becoming poor and uninfluential, and vice versa? "The Buddha answered thus: " The woman who is very hot-tempered and who gets angry for slight reason becomes poor and ugly if she does not offer any charity to the Samanas or Brahmanas, but if she offers charity to the Samanas or Brahamanas, she becomes rich and influential although she is hot-tempered." The Buddha further said "She who is not hot-tempered and does not become angry for slight reason becomes poor and influential if she does not offer any charity to the Samanas or Brahmanas." Mallika admitted that on account of her hot-temper and peevish nature she had an ugly appearance, but she, on account of her previous charities, became a queen. She further said that she would treat properly the daughters of the Ksatriyas, the Brahmanas and the other householders who were subordinate to her. She became a devotee of the Buddha, being very pleased with him. (Anguttara Nikaya, II, pp. 202-205).

It is noteworthy that once Mallika was asked by Pasenadi whether she had anybody dearer to her than her own soul. She replied in the negative. Pasenadi was asked the same question by his wife, and he too answered it in the negative. She then went to the Buddha and related the matter to him. The Buddha said that they were right in holding that there was nothing more favourite than one's own soul. (Udana, p.47;cf. also S.N., 1, p.75.) Once Pasenadi invited Buddha to teach Dhamma to queens Mallika and Vasabhakhattiya as they were desirous of learning it. Buddha asked the king to engage Ananda for the purpose as it was not possible for him to go every day. Mallikadevi learnt it thoroughly, but Vasabhakhattiya was not so mindful of learning Dhamma. (D.C., 1, 382). It was Mallika who saved the life of many living beings who were brought for sacrifice to save Pasenadi from the evil effect of hearing four horrible sounds at midnight by inducing him to go to the Buddha instead and to take instructions from him. (D.C. vol. II, pp. 7-8). After her death, Mallikadevi had to suffer in the Avici hell because she deceived her husband by telling a lie about her misconduct. (D.C., III, 119f.).

Mallikadevi made the following arrangements on the occasion of Pasenadi's offering a unique gift to the Buddha and the bhikkhus:

1. She made a canopy with Sala wooden parts, under which five hundred bhikkhus could sit within and five hundred outside.

2. Five hundred white umbrellas were raised by five hundred elephants following five hundred bhikkhus.

3. Golden boats were placed in the middle of the pandal, and each noble daughter threw scents in the midst of the bhikkhus.

4. Each Khattiya princess fanned the bhikkhus.

5. Golden boats were filled with scents and perfumes. (D.C., III., pp. 184 f.)

The daughter of queen Mallika was also named Mallika. She was the wife of General Bandhula. She was childless for a long time. Bandhula sent her to her father's house. On the way she went to the Jetavana to salute the Buddha who was informed by her that her husband was sending her home as she was childless. The Buddha asked her to go to her husband's house. Bandhula was informed of this fact and thought that the Buddha must have got the idea that she would be pregnant. The sign of pregnancy was visible in her, and she desired to drink water and bathe in the well-guarded tank of the Licchavis. Bandhula with his wife visited the tank and he made his wife bathe and drink water therefrom. (D.C., I, pp. 349-351.) Mallika, wife of Bandhula, and daughter of a Malla king of Kusinara, offered worship to the relic of the Buddha with plenty of perfumes and garlands and also an ornament named mahalata which was very valuable. In consequence of this, she, after death, was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven where she was bedecked all in yellow. (Vimanavatthu Commy., 165.)

Vajira was a bhikkuni who was tempted by Mara when she went to the Andhavana forest to meditate. Mara came to her and asked her, " Who has created the being? Wherefrom it has come, and. where will it go?" She said, "The aggregation of five skandhas constitutes the being." Mara then left her. (Samyutta Nikaya, I, PP. 134-135.)

Cira bhikkhuni was given a robe by an upasika of the Buddha. This message was declared by a Yakkha in the streets of Rajagaha saying that the giver by giving a robe to Cira who was free from fetters, could acquire much merit. (Samyutta Nikaya, I, p. 213.)

Uttara and her husband were serving a banker at Rajagaha. Once the banker went to attend a famous ceremony, and Uttttra with her husband was at home. The husband of Uttara went to cultivate in the morning. Uttara was going with cooked food to her husband in the field. On the way she met Sariputta who was just rising up from nirodha-samapatti (meditation on cessation) and offered the food to him, with the result that she became the richest lady of Rajagaha, and her husband became a banker named Mahadhanasetthi. (D.C., III, pp. 302 f.)

Punna was the maid-servant of a banker of Savatthi. Once she was asked to husk a large quantity of paddy. While engaged in husking the paddy at night, she went outside the house to take rest. At this time Dabba, a Mallian, was in charge of making arrangements for the sleeping accommodation of the bhikkhus who were guests. Punna with some cakes went out to enquire of the cause of their movements with lights at night. The Buddha went out for alms by the way in which Punna was. She offered all the cakes to the Buddha without keeping any for herself. The Buddha accepted them. Punna was thinking whether Buddha would partake of her food. The Buddha did partake of it in her house. The effect of this offering was that Punna obtained the fruit of Stream Entry where the offering was made. (D.C., III, pp. 321 f.)

Rohini was Anuruddha's sister. She was suffering from white leprosy. She did not go to her brother as she was suffering. Anuruddha sent for her and asked her to build a rest- house for bhikkhus to get rid of her sin. She kept the rest-house clean even when it was under construction, and she did this with great devotion for a long time. She became free from her disease. Shortly afterwards the Buddha went to Kapilavatthu and sent for Rohini. The Buddha told her that she was the queen of the king of Benares in her former birth. The king was enamoured of the beauty of a dancing girl. The queen knowing this, became jealous of her, and to punish her she put something in her cloth and bathing water which produced terrible itching all over her body. On account of this sin, she got this disease. She obtained the fruit of Stream Entry and the colour of her body became golden. (D.C., III, pp. 295 f.)

Suppavasa, a daughter of a Koliyan was pregnant for seven years, but she did not give birth to any child. After seven years, labour pain began and she suffered terribly for seven days, but no child was born. She requested her husband to go to the Buddha and to salute him on her behalf, reporting the matter to him. Her husband went to the Buddha and informed him. The Buddha desired that Suppavasa would give birth to a son without any pain and disease. While the Buddha was expressing this desire, a son was born. Her husband was sent again to invite the Buddha to her house for seven days. The Buddha accepted the invitation. The Master took his meal there for seven days and converted both of them (Udana, pp. 15-17; Cf, D.C., IV, 192-193). Suppavasa used to give alms daily to five hundred bhikkhus. (Dhamapada Commy.,1, 339.) She became the foremost of the upasikas offering the best food to the Buddha. Buddha told her the good effect of offering food, and he further said that an offerer by offering rice offers the lease of life, beauty, happiness and strength. The offerer in return obtains celestial life, celestial beauty, happiness and strength. (Anguttara Nikaya, II, pp. 62-63).

Another bhikkhuni of some repute was Nakulamata. When her husband was ill and was ready to die, free from anxiety, she told him not to worry, that she knew spinning and weaving and management of household affairs and children. She also told her husband that she would never remarry after his death, as both of them lived the life of a recluse for sixteen years. She informed her husband that after his death she would meet the Buddha and the bhikkhu sangha. She also promised to observe the precepts. She also told her husband that she was one of the female devotees who fully observed the precepts, controlled the mind, had strong faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Samgha, and who became fearless and did not depend on others except the Buddha for support. (A.N., III, 295 f.)

Bojjha was a devotee who approached the Buddha, who preached to her the reward of observing the precepts and the Sabbath. The Master said to her. "Happiness obtained by observing Sabbath is sixteen times greater than that enjoyed by the sixteen countries." (A.N., IV, pp.259-260.)

Velukantaki Nandamata was a devotee of the Buddha. She gave offerings to Sariputta and Moggallana. Referring to this the Buddha said, "A giver must be pleased before he gives dana; his mind must be pleased while giving dana and after giving dana. The receiver of the offering must be free from passion, hatred and delusion. The consequence of such a gift is immeasurable". Nandamata gave such a gift to Sariputta and Moggallana, and she obtained immeasurable consequence of the gift. (A.N., III, 336-337. ).

Nandamata was once repeating the Parayana Sutta of the Sutta Nipata in a sweet voice. King Vessavana was going from north to south, and he waited there till Nandamata finished her repetition and then praised her much. Nandamata told Vessavans that the merit he acquired by praising her would be beneficial to him. Vessavana gladly assented and said that her merit, which had been acquired by her gift to Sariputta and Moggallana, would thus be beneficial to him also. (A. N., IV, p.63 f.)

Migasala was an upasika who went to Ananda and said, "According to the instruction of the Buddha, a brahmacari and an abrahamacari go to the same place after death and enjoy the same amount of happiness." Ananda went to the Buddha to have this problem solved. The Buddha said that the lay devotee was ignorant and uneducated and therefore she could not realize it properly. The Buddha further said, "Even a householder may acquire the same amount of merit as acquired by a brahmacari who does not fulfil his duties properly."

Dinna, a bhikkhuni, was asked by her husband about sakkayaditthi, sakkayanirodha, ariyatthangikamaggo, samkhara, nirodhasamapatti, manner of rising up from nirodhasamapatti and vedana. Dhammadina gave satisfactory answers to all the questions. She said, "Five upadana khandhas constitute, sakkayaditthi. Tanha means sakkaya samudayo. Destruction of tanha means sakkaya nirodha. The noble eight-fold path is the means of attaining sakkayanirodha. Ignorant people take the five upadana khandhas jointly and separately as atta (soul); the learned and noble disciples do not take them in this sense. Those who obtain nirodha samapatti are stopped one after another. The three kinds of vedana are sukha, dukkha and adukkhamasukha (M.N., 1., 299 f.)

There was an Upasika named Suyata who destroyed three bonds and obtained the first stage of sanctification. (S.N., V, p.356.)

Nanda, sister of the king of Kosala, was a bhikkhuni. While going through the sky at night she instructed Kalasoka and bhikkhu sangha to purify the bhikkhu sangha by driving out bad bhikkhus and protecting good bhikkhus (Sasanavamsa, p.6).

There was another woman named Nanda who was the wife of a householder named Nandasena who lived in a certain village near Savatthi. She had no faith in the Buddha. She was very hot-tempered and used to abuse her husband, father-in-law and mother-in-law. On her death she became a preta. One day she appeared before her husband and gave him an account of her past misdeeds. The husband made gifts for her sake to the bhikkhus, and Nanda was released from her miseries. (P.D. on the Petavathu, pp. 89-92.)

Revati was the daughter of a householder of Benares. She had no faith in the Buddha, and was very uncharitable. For some days she was forced by her parents to do meritorious deeds in order to win Nandiya, a neighbour's son, as her husband. After marriage, Nandiya made her follow him in his meritorious deeds. Thereafter Nandiya had to go abroad. He asked his wife to continue all the meritorious deeds. Revati did so for seven days. Then she stopped all meritorious deeds and began to abuse the bhikkhus who had come to her house for alms. Nandiya, on his return, found that all his acts of charity had been discontinued. After death Revati became a hellish creature. On his death Nandiya became a devata. He saw with his divine eyes that Revati had become a hellish creature. He then went to her and asked her to approve of the meritorious acts done by him. As soon as she did so, she became a devata and resided with Nandiya in heaven. (B.C. Law, Buddhist Conception of Spirits, p.79.)

Samavati was the queen of king Udena of Kosambi. The harem containing Samavati with 500 female attendants was burnt down while Udena was in the royal garden. The matter was referred to the Buddha, who said, " Each upasika had gone according to her kamma, some have become sotapanna sakadagami and anagami and so forth (Udana, p.79).

There was a maid-servant named Birani engaged by Asoka Brahmana to give food daily to the sangha which was enough for eight bhikkhus. This she used to do with devotion, with the result that after her death she was born in a vimana (celestial abode) in the sky. (Mahavamsa, p.214.)

Rupananda was Buddha's step-sister. She thought that her eldest brother renounced the world and had become a Buddha. Her younger brother Nanda was a bhikkhu and Rahulakumara had obtained ordination. Her husband too became a bhikkhu and her mother, Mahapajapati-gotami, became a bhikkhuni. She renounced the world thinking that so many of her relatives had renounced the world. She did not go before the Buddha as she was proud of her beauty, while the Buddha used to preach the impermanency and worthlessness of form. The other bhikkhunis and bhikkhus always used to praise the Buddha in her presence and tell her that all ,having different tastes, became blessed by seeing the Buddha.

Nanda thought of going to the Buddha with other bhikkhunis but she would not show herself to the Buddha. Ananda came to know that Nanda had come with the bhikkhunis. The Buddha desired to lower her pride in her beauty by showing the bad effect of it. By his miraculous power the Buddha created a most beautiful girl who was engaged in fanning the Buddha. Nanda seeing her beauty found out that her own beauty was much inferior. The girl was seen gradually attaining youth, the state of a mother and then old age and disease and death. Nanda, seeing this, gave up her pride in her beauty and came to realize the impermanence of beauty. The Buddha, knowing the state of her mind, delivered a suitable sermon and she became an arhat after hearing it. (D.C., 111, pp. 113 f.)

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From: The Indian Antiquary, 1928, pp.49-54 (1928.03), 65-68 (1928.04), 86-89 (1928.05)


Source: Center for Buddhist Studies, National Taiwan University,
http://pears2.lib.ohio-state.edu/FULLTEXT/cf_eng.htm


The Life of Sariputta

Prologue
In many temples of Sri Lanka you will find on either side of the Buddha image, the statues of two monks. Their robes are draped over one shoulder and they stand in the attitude of reverence, with joined palms. Quite often there are a few flowers at their feet, laid there by some pious devotee.

If you ask who they are, you will be told that they are the Enlightened One's two Chief Disciples, the Arahats Sariputta and Maha Moggallana. They stand in the positions they occupied in life. Sariputta on the Buddha's right, Maha Moggallana on his left. When the great stupa at Sanchi was opened up in the middle of the last century, the relic chamber was found to contain two stone receptacles; the one to the north held the body relics of Maha Moggallana, while that on the south enclosed those of Sariputta. Thus they had lain while the centuries rolled past and the history of two thousand years and more played out the drama of impermanence in human life. The Roman Empire rose and fell, the glories of ancient Greece became a distant memory; new religions wrote their names, often with blood and fire, on the changing face of the earth, only to mingle at last with legends of Thebes and Babylon, and gradually the tides of commerce shifted the great centers of civilisation from East to West, while generations that had never heard the Teaching of the Buddha arose and passed away. But all the time that the ashes of the saints lay undisturbed, forgotten in the land that gave them birth, their memory was held dear wherever the Buddha's message spread, and the record of their lives was passed down from one generation to another, first by word of mouth, then in the written pages of the Buddhist Tripitaka, the most voluminous and detailed scripture of any religion. next to the Enlightened One himself, it is these two disciples of his who stand highest in the veneration of Buddhists in the Theravada lands. Their names are as inseparable from the annals of Buddhism as that of the Buddha himself. If it has come about that in the course of time many legends have been woven into the tradition of their lives, this is but the natural outcome of the devotion that has always been felt for them.

And that high esteem was fully justified. Few religious teachers have been so well served by their immediate disciples as was the Buddha. This you will see as you read these pages, for they tell the story of one of the two greatest of them, Sariputta, who was second only to the Buddha in the depth and range of his understanding, and his ability to teach the Doctrine of Deliverance. In the Tripitaka there is no connected account of his life, but it can be pieced together from the various incidents, scattered throughout the canonical texts and commentaries, in which he figures. Some of them are more than incidents, for his life so closely interwoven with the life and ministry of the Buddha that he plays an essential part in it, and on a number of occasions it is the Sariputta himself who takes the leading role — as skilled preceptor and exemplar, as kind and considerate friend, as guardian of the welfare of the bhikkhus under his charge, as faithful repository of his Master's doctrine, the function which earned him the title of Dhamma-senapati, Marshal of the Dhamma, and always as himself, a man unique in his patience and steadfastness, modest and upright in thought, word and deed, a man to whom one act of kindness was a thing to be remembered with gratitude so long as life endured. Even among the Arahats, saints freed from all defilements of passion and delusion, he shone like the full moon in a starry sky.

This then is the man, of profound intellect and sublime nature, a true disciple of the Great Teacher, whose story we have set down, to the best of our ability, in the pages that follow. If you, the reader, can gather from this imperfect record something of the qualities of man perfected, of man fully liberated and raised to the highest level of his being; of how such a man acts and speaks and comports himself towards his fellows; and if the reading of it gives you strength and faith in the assurance of what man may become, then our work has been worthwhile, and is fully rewarded.

Part I
From Birth to the Attainment of Arahatship
The story begins at two brahmanical villages in India, called Upatissa and Kolita, which lay not far from the city Rajagaha. Before our Buddha had appeared in the world a brahman lady named Sari, living in Upatissa village,1 conceived; and also, on the same day at Kolita village, did another brahman lady whose name was Moggalli. The two families were closely connected, having been friends with one another for seven generations. From the first day of their pregnancy the families gave due care to the mothers-to-be, and after ten months both women gave birth to boys, on the same day. On the name-giving day the child of the brahman lady Sari received the name Upatissa, as he was a son of the foremost family of that village; and for the same reason Moggalli's son was named Kolita.

When the boys grew up they were educated, and acquired mastery of all the sciences. Each of them had a following of five hundred brahman youths, and when they went to the river or park for sport and recreation, Upatissa used to go with five hundred palanquins, and Kolita with five hundred carriages.

Now at Rajagaha there was an annual event called the Hilltop Festival. Seats were arranged for both youths and they sat together to witness the celebrations. When there was occasion for laughter, they laughed; when the spectacles were exciting, they became excited; and they paid their fees for the extra shows. In this manner they enjoyed the festival for a second day; but on the third day their understanding was awakened and they could no longer laugh or get excited, nor did they feel inclined to pay for extra shows as they had done on the first days. Each of them had the same thought: "What is there to look at here? Before these people have reached a hundred years they will all have come to death. What we ought to do is to seek for a teaching of deliverance."

It was with such thoughts in mind that they took their seats at the festival. Then Kolita said to Upatissa: "How is this, my dear Upatissa? You are not as happy and joyous as you were on the other days. You seem now to be in a discontented mood, What is on your mind?"

"My dear Kolita, to look at these things here is of no benefit at all. it is utterly worthless! I ought to seek a teaching of deliverance for myself. That, my Kolita, is what I was thinking, seated here. But you, Kolita, seem to be discontented, too."

And Kolita replied: "Just as you have said, I also feel." When he knew that his friend had the same inclinations, Upatissa said: "That was a good thought of ours. But for those who seek a teaching of deliverance there is only one thing to do: to leave home and become ascetics. But under whom shall we live the ascetic life?"

At that time, there lived at Rajagaha an ascetic of the sect of the Wanderers (paribbajaka), called Sañjaya, who had a great following of pupils. Deciding to get ordination under him, Upatissa and Kolita went there, each with his own following of five hundred Brahman youths and all of them received ordination from Sañjaya. And from the time of their ordination under him, Sañjaya's reputation and support increased abundantly.

Within a short time the two friends had learned Sañjaya's entire doctrine and they asked him: "Master, does your doctrine go so far only, or is there something beyond?"

Sañjaya replied: "So far only it goes. You know all."

Hearing this, they thought to themselves: "If that is the case, it is useless to continue the Holy Life under him. We have gone forth from home to seek a teaching of deliverance. Under him we cannot find it. But India is vast; if we wander through villages, towns and cities we shall certainly find a master who can show us the teaching of deliverance." And after that, whenever they heard that there were wise ascetics or brahmans at this or that place, they went and discussed with them. But there was none who was able to answer their questions, while they were able to reply to those who questioned them.

Having thus traveled through the whole of India they turned back, and arriving at their old place they agreed between them that he who should attain to the Deathless State first, should inform the other. It was a pact of brotherhood, born of the deep friendship between the two young men.

Some time after they had made that agreement, the Blessed One, the Buddha, came to Rajagaha. It was when he had delivered the Fire Sermon at Gaya Peak that he remembered his promise, given before his Enlightenment to King Bimbisara, that he would come to Rajagaha again when he had attained his goal. So in stages the Blessed One journeyed from Gaya to Rajagaha, and having received from King Bimbisara the Bamboo Grove Monastery (Veluvana) he resided there.

Among the sixty-one Arahats (Saints) whom the Master had sent forth to proclaim to the world the virtues of the Triple Gem, there was the Elder Assaji, who belonged to the group of five ascetics, the Buddha's erstwhile companions before his Enlightenment, and afterwards his first disciples. The Elder Assaji had returned to Rajagaha from his wanderings, and when one morning he was going for alms in the city he was seen by Upatissa, who was on his way to the Paribbajaka ascetic's monastery. Struck by Assaji's dignified and serene appearance, Upatissa thought: "Never before have I seen such a monk. He must be one of those who are Arahats, or on the way to Arahatship. Should I not approach him and ask, 'Under whom have you been ordained? Who is your teacher and whose teaching do you profess?'"

But then he thought: "It is not the proper time now for putting questions to this monk, as he is going for alms through the streets. I had better follow behind him, after the manner of supplicants." And he did so.

Then, when the Elder had gathered his almsfood, and Upatissa saw him going to another place intending to sit down and take his meal, he prepared for him his own ascetic's seat that he carried with him, and offered it to the Elder. The Elder Assaji took his meal, after which Upatissa served him with water from his own water-container, and in that way performed towards Assaji the duties of a pupil to a teacher.

After they had exchanged the usual courteous greetings. Upatissa said: "Serene are your features, friend. Pure and bright is your complexion. Under whom, friend, have you gone forth as an ascetic? Who is your teacher and whose doctrine do you profess?"

Assaji replied: "There is, O friend, the Great Recluse, the scion of the Sakyas, who has gone forth from the Sakya clan. Under that Blessed One I have gone forth. That Blessed One is my teacher and it is his Dhamma that I profess."

"What does the venerable one's master teach, what does he proclaim?"

Questioned thus, the Elder Assaji thought to himself: "These wandering ascetics are opposed to the Buddha's dispensation. I shall show him how profound this dispensation is." So he said: "I am but new to the training, friend. It is not long since I went forth from home, and I came but recently to this teaching and discipline. I cannot explain the Dhamma in detail to you."

The wanderer replied: "I am called Upatissa, friend. Please tell me according to your ability, be it much or little. It will be my task to penetrate its meaning by way of a hundred or a thousand methods." And he added:

"Be it little or much that you can tell,
the meaning only, please proclaim to me!
To know the meaning is my sole desire;
Of no avail to me are many words."

In response, the Elder Assaji uttered this stanza:

"Of all those things that from a cause arise,
Tathagata the cause thereof has told;
And how they cease to be, that too he tells,
This is the doctrine of the Great Recluse."2

Upon hearing the first two lines, Upatissa became established in the Path of stream-entry, and to the ending of the last two lines he already listened as a stream-winner.

When he become a stream-winner, and before he had achieved the higher attainments, he thought: "Here will the means of deliverance be found!" and he said to the Elder: "Do not enlarge upon this exposition of the Dhamma, venerable sir. This will suffice. But where does our Master live?"

"In the Bamboo Grove Monastery, wanderer."

"Then please go on ahead, venerable sir. I have a friend with whom I agreed that he who should reach the Deathless State first, should tell the other. I shall inform him, and together we shall follow on the road you went and shall come into the Master's presence." Upatissa then prostrated himself at the Elder's feet, saluted him and, taking the Elder's leave, went back to the park of the Wandering Ascetics.

Kolita saw him approaching and thought: "Today my friend's appearance is quite changed. Surely, he must have found the Deathless State!"

And when he asked him about it, Upatissa replied: "Yes, friend, the Deathless State has been found!" and he recited to him the stanza he had heard. At the end of the verse, Kolita was established in the Fruition of stream-entry and he asked: "Where, my dear, does the Master live?"

"I learned from our teacher, the Elder Assaji, that he lives at the Bamboo Grove Monastery."

"Then let us go, Upatissa, and see the Master," said Kolita.

But Sariputta was one who always respected his teacher, and therefore he said to his friend: "First, my dear, we shall go to our teacher, the Wanderer Sañjaya, and tell him that we have found the Deathless. If he can grasp it, he will penetrate to the Truth. And even if he does not he may, out of confidence in us, come with us to see the Master; and hearing the Buddha's teaching, he will attain to the penetration of the Path and Fruition."

So both of them went to Sañjaya and said: "Oh, our teacher! What are you doing? A Buddha has appeared in the world! Well proclaimed is his Teaching and in right conduct lives his community of monks. Let us go and see the Master of the Ten Powers!"

"What are you saying, my dear?" Sañjaya exclaimed. And refusing to go with them he spoke to them of the gain and fame they would enjoy if they would share his, the teacher's, place.

But they said: "Oh, we should not mind always remaining in the state of pupils! But you, O teacher, you must know whether to go or not!"

Then Sañjaya thought: "If they know so much, they will not listen to what I say." And realizing that, he replied: "You may go, then, but I cannot."

"Why not, O teacher?"

"I am a teacher of many. If I were to revert to the state of a disciple, it would be as if a huge water tank were to change into a small pitcher. I cannot live the life of a pupil now."

"Do not think like that, O teacher!" they urged.

"Let it be, my dear. You may go, but I cannot."

"Oh teacher! When a Buddha has appeared in the world, people flock to him in large crowds and pay homage to him, carrying incense and flowers. We too shall go there. And then what will happen to you?"

To which Sañjaya replied: "What do you think, my pupils: are there more fools in this world, or more wise people?"

"Fools there are many, O teacher, and the wise are few."

"If that is so, my friends, then the wise ones will go to the wise recluse Gotama, and the fools will come to me, the fool. You may go now, but I shall not."

So the two friends left, saying: "You will come to understand your mistake, O teacher!" And after they had gone there was a split among Sañjaya's pupils, and his monastery became almost empty. Seeing his place empty, Sañjaya vomited hot blood. Five hundred of his disciples had left along with Upatissa and Kolita, out of whom two hundred and fifty returned to Sañjaya. With the remaining two hundred and fifty, and their own following, the two friends arrived at the Bamboo Grove Monastery.

There the Master, seated among the fourfold assembly3 was preaching the Dhamma, and when the Blessed One saw the two coming he addressed the monks: "These two friends, Upatissa and Kolita, who are now coming, will be two excellent disciples to me, a blessed pair."

Having approached, the friends saluted the Blessed One reverentially and sat down at one side. When they were seated they spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "May we obtain, O Lord, the ordination of the Going Forth under the Blessed One, may we obtain the Higher Ordination!"

And the Blessed One said: "Come, O bhikkhus! Well proclaimed is the Dhamma. Now live the Life of Purity, to make an end of suffering!" This alone served as the ordination of these venerable ones.

Then the master continued his sermon, taking the individual temperaments4 of the listeners into consideration; and with the exception of the two chief disciples all of them attained to Arahatship. But the two chief disciples had not yet completed the task of attaining to the three higher paths of sanctity. The reason for this was the greatness of the "knowledge pertaining to the perfection of a disciple" (savakaparami-ñana), which they had still to reach.

Upatissa received the name of Sariputta on becoming a disciple of the Buddha, while Kolita became known as Maha Moggallana.

Now the Venerable Maha Moggallana went to live at a village in Magadha called Kallavala, on which he depended for almsfood. On the seventh day after his ordination when he was doing the recluse's work (of meditation), fatigue and torpor fell upon him. But spurred on by the Master,5 he dispelled his fatigue, and while listening to the Master expounding to him the meditation subject of the elements (dhatu-kammatthana), he completed the task of winning to the three higher paths and reached the acme of a disciple's perfections (savaka-parami).

But the Venerable Sariputta continued to stay near the Master, at a cave called the Boar's Shelter (Sukarakhata-lena), depending on Rajagaha for his almsfood. Half a month after his ordination the Blessed One gave a discourse on the comprehension of feelings6 to the Venerable Sariputta's nephew, the wandering ascetic Dighanakha. The Venerable Sariputta was standing behind the Master, fanning him. While following with his thoughts the progress of the discourse, as though sharing the food prepared for another, the Venerable Sariputta on that occasion reached the acme of "knowledge pertaining to a disciple's perfection and attained to Arahatship together with the fourfold analytical knowledge (patisambhida-ñana)."7 And his nephew, at the end of the sermon, was established in the Fruition of stream-entry.8

Now it may be asked: Did not the Venerable Sariputta possess great wisdom; and if so, why did he attain to the disciple's perfections later than the Venerable Maha Moggallana? The answer is, because of the greatness of the preparations necessary for it. When poor people want to go anywhere they take to the road at once; but in the case of kings, larger preparations are required, as for instance to get ready the elephants and chariots, and so on. Thus it was in this case.

On that same day, when the evening shadows had lengthened, the Master caused his disciples to assemble and bestowed upon the two Elders the rank of Chief Disciples. At this, some monks were displeased and said among themselves: "The Master should have given the rank of Chief Disciples to those who were ordained first, that is, the Group of Five disciples. If not to them, then either to the group of two hundred and fifty bhikkhus headed by Yasa, or to the thirty of the Auspicious Group (Bhaddavaggiya), or else to the three Kassapa brothers. But passing over all these Great Elders, he has given it to those whose ordination was the very last of all."

The Master inquired about the subject of their talk. When he was told, he said: "I do not show preference, but give to each what he has aspired to. When, for instance, Kondañña-the Knower in a previous life gave almsfood nine times during a single harvest, he did not aspire to Chief Discipleship; his aspiration was to be the very first to penetrate to the highest state, Arahatship. And so it came about. But when Sariputta and Maha Moggallana many aeons ago, at the time of the Buddha Anomadassi, were born as the brahman youth Sarada and landowner Sirivaddhaka, they made the aspiration for Chief Discipleship. This, O bhikkhus, was the aspiration for these my sons at that time. Hence I have given them just what they aspired to, and did not do it out of preference."

This account of the beginning of the Venerable Sariputta's career is taken from the Commentary to the Anguttara Nikaya, Etad-agga section, with some passages from the parallel version in the Dhammapada Commentary. From it some of the principal traits of the Venerable Sariputta's character are already discernible. His capacity for deep and constant friendship showed itself while he was still a worldling, a youth nurtured in luxury and pleasure, and it persisted after he had abandoned the household life. On receiving his first insight into the Dhamma, and before proceeding any further, his first thought was for his friend Kolita and the vow they had sworn together. His penetrating intellect is revealed in the promptness with which he grasped the essence of the Buddha's teaching from a few simple words. And, most rare of all, he combined that intellectual power with a modesty and sweetness of nature that expressed itself in gratitude and reverence for anyone, even the misguided Sañjaya, who had taught him things of value. It was no wonder, therefore, that throughout his life he continued to show respect for the Venerable Assaji, from whom he had gained his introduction to the Buddha's Teaching. We are told in the Commentary to the Nava Sutta (Sutta-Nipata), and also in the Commentary to v. 392 of the Dhammapada, that whenever the Venerable Sariputta lived in the same monastery as the Elder Assaji, he always went to pay obeisance to him immediately after having done so to the Blessed One. This he did out of reverence, thinking: "This venerable one was my first teacher. It was through him that I came to know the Buddha's Dispensation." And when the Elder Assaji lived in another monastery, the Venerable Sariputta used to face the direction in which the Elder Assaji was living, and to pay homage to him by touching the ground at five places (with the head, hands and feet), and saluting with joined palms.

But this led to misunderstanding, for when other monks saw it they said: "After becoming a Chief Disciple, Sariputta still worships the heavenly quarters! Even today he cannot give up his brahmanical views!" Hearing these remarks, the Blessed One said: "It is not so, bhikkhus. Sariputta does not worship the heavenly quarters. He salutes him through whom he came to know the Dhamma. It is him he salutes, worships and reveres as his teacher. Sariputta is one who gives devout respect to his teacher." It was then that the Master preached to the monks assembled there the Nava Sutta,9 which starts with the words:

"As gods their homage pay to Indra,
So should a man give reverence to him
From whom he learned the Dhamma."

Another example of the Venerable Sariputta's gratitude is given in the story of Radha Thera. The Commentary to verse 76 of the Dhammapada relates that there was living at Savatthi a poor brahman who stayed in the monastery. There he performed little services such as weeding, sweeping, and the like and the monks supported him with food. They did not, however, want to ordain him. One day the Blessed One, in his mental survey of the world, saw that this brahman was mature for Arahatship. he inquired about him from the assembled monks, and asked whether any one of them remembered to have received some help from the poor brahman. The Venerable Sariputta said that he remembered that once, when he was going for alms in Rajagaha, this poor brahman had given him a ladle full of almsfood that he had begged for himself. The Master asked Sariputta to ordain the man, and he was given the name Radha. The Venerable Sariputta then advised him time and again as to what things should be done, and always Radha received his admonitions gladly, without resentment. And so, living according to the Elder's advice, he attained Arahatship in a short time.

This time the bhikkhus remarked on Sariputta's sense of gratitude and said that he who himself willingly accepts advice obtains pupils who do the same. Commenting on this, the Buddha said that not only then, but also formerly Sariputta had showed gratitude and remembered any good deed done to him. And in that connection the Master told the Alinacitta Jataka, the story of a grateful elephant.10

Part II
Maturity of Insight
Friendships
If Sariputta was notable for his lasting sense of gratitude, he was no less so for his capacity for friendship. With Maha Moggallana, the friend and companion of his youth, he maintained a close intimacy, and many were the conversations they held on the Dhamma. One of these, which is of special interest as throwing light on the process of Venerable Sariputta's attainment, is recorded in the Anguttara Nikaya, Catukka-nipata, No. 167. It relates that once the Venerable Maha Moggallana went to see the Elder and said to him:

"There are four ways of progress, brother Sariputta:

difficult progress, with sluggish direct-knowledge;
difficult progress, with swift direct-knowledge;
easy progress, with sluggish direct-knowledge;
easy progress, with swift direct-knowledge.

"By which of these four ways of progress, brother, was your mind freed from the cankers without remnants of clinging?" To which the Venerable Sariputta replied: "By that of those four ways of progress, brother, which is easy and has swift direct-knowledge."

The explanation of this passage is that if the suppression of the defilements preparatory to absorption or insight takes place without great difficulty, progress is called "easy" (sukha-patipada); in the reverse case it is "difficult" or "painful" (dukkha-patipada). If, after the suppression of the defilements, the manifestation of the Path, the goal of insight, is quickly effected, the direct-knowledge (connected with the Path) is called "swift" (khippabhiñña); in the reverse case it is "sluggish" (dandabhiñña). In this discourse the Venerable Sariputta's statement refers to his attainment of arahantship. His attainment of the first three Paths, however, was, according to the commentary to the above text, connected with "easy progress and sluggish direct-knowledge."

In such ways as this did the two friends exchange information about their experience and understanding of the Dhamma. They were also frequently associated in attending to affairs of the Sangha. One such occasion was when they combined in winning back certain monks who had been led astray by Devadatta. There is an interesting passage11 in this connection which shows that the Venerable Sariputta's generous praise of Devadatta's achievements before the latter brought about a schism in the Sangha was the cause of a slight embarrassment. It relates that when the Buddha asked Sariputta to proclaim in Rajagaha that Devadatta's deeds and words should no longer be regarded as connected with the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, the Venerable Sariputta said: "Formerly I spoke at Rajagaha in praise of Devadatta's magical powers?" "Yes, Lord," the elder replied. "So you will now speak truthfully also, Sariputta, when you make this proclamation about Devadatta." So, after receiving the formal approval of the Sangha, the Venerable Sariputta, together with many monks, went to Rajagaha and made the declaration about Devadatta.

When Devadatta had formally split the Sangha by declaring that he would conduct Sangha-acts separately, he went to Vultures' Peak with five hundred young monks who through ignorance had become his followers. To win them back, the Buddha sent Sariputta and Maha Moggallana to the Vultures' Peak, and while Devadatta was resting, the two Chief Disciples preached to the monks, who attained to stream-entry and went back to the Master.12

Another time when the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Maha Moggallana worked together to restore order in the Sangha was when a group of monks led by Assaji (not the Elder Assaji referred to earlier) and Punnabbassu, living at Kitagiri, were misbehaving. In spite of repeated admonitions, these monks would not mend their ways, so the two Chief Disciples were sent to pronounce the penalty of pabbajaniya-kamma (excommunication) on those who would not submit to the discipline.13

Venerable Sariputta's devotion to his friend was fully reciprocated; we are told of two occasions when Sariputta was ill, and Maha Moggallana attended to him and brought him medicine.

Yet there was nothing exclusive about the Venerable Sariputta's friendships, for according to the commentary to the Maha-Gosinga Sutta there was also a bond of mutual affection between him and the Elder Ananda. On the part of Sariputta it was because he thought: "He is attending on the Master — a duty which should have been performed by me"; and Ananda's affection was due to the fact that Sariputta had been declared by the Buddha as his foremost disciple. When Ananda gave Novice Ordination to young pupils he used to take them to Sariputta to obtain Higher ordination under him. The Venerable Sariputta did the same in regard to Ananda, and in that way they had five hundred pupils in common.

Whenever the Venerable Ananda received choice robes or other requisites he would offer them to Sariputta, and in the same way, Sariputta passed on to Ananda any special offerings that were made to him. Once Ananda received from a certain brahman a very valuable robe, and with the Master's permission he kept it for ten days awaiting Sariputta's return. The sub-commentary says that later teachers commented on this: "There may be those who say: 'We can well understand that Ananda, who had not yet attained to Arahatship, felt such affection. But how is it in the case of Sariputta, who was a canker-free arahant?" To this we answer: 'Sariputta's affection was not one of worldly attachment, but a love for Ananda's virtues (guna-bhatti).'"

The Buddha once asked the Venerable Ananda: "Do you, too, approve of Sariputta?" And Ananda replied: "Who, O Lord, would not approve of Sariputta, unless he were childish, corrupt, stupid or of perverted mind! Learned, O Lord, is the Venerable Sariputta; of great wisdom, O Lord, is the Venerable Sariputta; of broad, bright, quick, keen and penetrative wisdom is the Venerable Sariputta; of few wants and contented, inclined to seclusion, not fond of company, energetic, eloquent, willing to listen, an exhorter who censures what is evil."14

In the Theragatha (v. 1034f) we find the Venerable Ananda describing his emotion at the time of Sariputta's death. "When the Noble Friend (Sariputta) had gone," he declares, "the world was plunged in darkness for me." But he adds that after the companion had left him behind, and also the Master had passed away, there was no other friend like mindfulness directed on the body. Ananda's sorrow on learning of the Venerable Sariputta's death is also described very movingly in the Cunda Sutta.15

Sariputta was a true friend in the fullest sense of the word. He well understood how to bring out the best in others, and in doing so did not hesitate sometimes to speak straightforwardly and critically, like the ideal friend described by the Buddha, who points out his friend's faults. It was in this way that he helped the venerable Anuruddha in his final break-through to Arahatship, as recorded in the Anguttara Nikaya (Tika-Nipata No. 128):

Once the Venerable Anuruddha went to see the Venerable Sariputta. When they had exchanged courteous greetings he sat down and said to the Venerable Sariputta: "Friend Sariputta, with the divine eye that is purified, transcending human ken, I can see the thousandfold world-system. Firm is my energy, unremitting; my mindfulness is alert and unconfused; the body is tranquil and unperturbed; my mind is concentrated and one-pointed. And yet my mind is not freed from cankers, not freed from clinging."

"Friend Anuruddha," said the Venerable Sariputta, "that you think thus of your divine eye, this is conceit in you. That you think thus of your firm energy, your alert mindfulness, your unperturbed body and your concentrated mind, this is restlessness in you. That you think of your mind not being freed from the cankers, this is worrying16 in you. It will be good, indeed, if the Venerable Anuruddha, abandoning these three states of mind and paying no attention to them, will direct the mind to the Deathless Element."

And the Venerable Anuruddha later on gave up these three states of mind, paid no attention to them and directed his mind to the Deathless Element. And the Venerable Anuruddha, living then alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, with determined mind, before long reached in this very life, understanding and experiencing it by himself, that highest goal of the Holy Life, for the sake of which noble sons go forth entirely from home into homelessness. And he knew: "Exhausted is rebirth, lived is the holy life, the work is done, nothing further remains after this." Thus the Venerable Anuruddha became one of the Arahats.

Sariputta must have been stimulating company, and sought after by many. What attracted men of quite different temperament to him and his conversation can be well understood from the incident described in the Maha-Gosinga Sutta (Majjhima Nikaya No. 32). One evening the Elders Maha Moggallana, Maha Kassapa, Anuruddha, Revata and Ananda went to Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma. The Venerable Sariputta welcomed them, saying: "Delightful is this Gosinga Forest of Sala trees; there is moonlight tonight, all the Sala trees are in full bloom, and it seems that heavenly perfume drifts around. What kind of monk, do you think, Ananda, will lend more luster to this Gosinga Sala Forest?"

The same question was put to the others as well, and each answered according to his individual nature. Finally, Sariputta gave his own answer, which was as follows:

"There is a monk who has control over his mind, who is under the control of his mind.17 In whatever (mental) abiding or attainment he wishes to dwell in the forenoon, he can dwell in it at that time. In whatever (mental) abiding or attainment he wishes to dwell at noon, he can dwell in it at that time. In whatever (mental) abiding or attainment he wishes to dwell in the evening, he can dwell in it at that time. It is as though a king's or royal minister's cloth chest were full of many-colored garments; so that whatever pair of garments he wishes to wear in the morning, or at noon, or in the evening, he can wear it at will at those times. Similarly it is with a monk who has control over his mind, who is not under the control of his mind; in whatever (mental) abiding or attainment he wishes to dwell in the morning, or at noon, or in the evening, he can do so at will at those times. Such a monk, friend Moggallana, may lend luster to this Gosinga Sala Forest."

They then went to the Buddha, who approved of all their answers and added his own.

We see from this episode that Sariputta, with all his powerful intellect and his status in the Sangha, was far from being a domineering type who tried to impose his views on others. How well did he understand how to stimulate self-expression in his companions in a natural and charming way, conveying to them the pensive mood evoked by the enchanting scenery! His own sensitive nature responded to it, and drew a similar response from his friends.

There are many such conversations recorded between Sariputta and other monks, not only the Venerables Maha Moggallana, Ananda and Anuruddha, but also Maha Kotthita, Upavana, Samiddhi, Savittha, Bhumija and many more. It seems that the Buddha himself liked to talk to Sariputta, for he often did so, and many of his discourses were addressed to his "Marshal of the Law," to use the title he gave him.

Once, Sariputta repeated some words the Master had spoken to Ananda on another occasion. "This is the whole of the Life of Purity (brahmacariya); namely, noble friendship, noble companionship, noble association."18

There could be no better exemplification of that teaching than the life of the Chief Disciple himself.

The Helper
Among the bhikkhus Sariputta was outstanding as one who helped others. We find a reference to this in the Devadaha Sutta.19 Some visiting monks, about to return to their own places, took formal leave of the Buddha. He then advised them to see the Venerable Sariputta and take leave of him also, telling them: "Sariputta, O bhikkhus, is wise, and a helper of his fellow monks."

The Commentary, in explanation of these words, says: "Sariputta was a helper in two ways: by giving material help (amisanuggaha) and the help of the Dhamma (dhammanuggaha)."

The Elder, it is said, did not go on almsround in the early morning hours as the other bhikkhus did. Instead, when they had all gone he walked around the entire monastery grounds, and wherever he saw an unswept place, he swept it; wherever refuse had not been removed, he threw it away; where furniture such as beds, chairs, etc., or earthenware had not been properly arranged, he put them in order. He did that lest other, non-Buddhist ascetics, visiting the monastery, might see some disorderliness and speak in contempt of the bhikkhus.

Then he used to go to the hall for the sick, and having spoken consoling words to the patients he would ask them about their needs. To procure their requirements he took with him young novices, and went in search of medicine either by way of the customary almsround or to some appropriate place. When the medicine was obtained he would give it to the novices, saying: "Caring for the sick has been praised by the Master! Go now, good people, and be heedful!" After sending them back to the monastery sick room he would go on the alms-round or take his meal at a supporter's house. This was his habit when staying for some time at a monastery.

But when going on a journey on foot with the Blessed One, he did not go with the very first of the monks, shod with sandals and umbrella in hand, as one who thinks: "I am the Chief Disciple." But letting the young novices take his bowl and robes sending them with the others, he himself would first attend to those who were old, very young, or unwell, making them apply oil to any sores they might have on their bodies. Then, either later on the same day or on the next day, he would leave together with them.

Once, when for that reason the Elder Sariputta had arrived particularly late at the place where the others were resting, he did not get proper quarters for the night, and seated himself under a tent made from robes. The Master saw this, and next day he caused the monks to assemble and told them the story of the elephant, the monkey and the partridge who, after deciding which was the eldest of them, lived together showing respect for the seniormost.20 He then laid down the rule that "lodgings should be allocated according to seniority."21

In this way the Venerable Sariputta was a helper by giving material help.

Sometimes he would give material help and the help of the Dhamma together, as when he visited Samitigutta, who suffered from leprosy, in the infirmary. The Theragatha Commentary tells us that he said to Samitigutta: "Friend, so long as the aggregates (khandha) continue, all feeling is just suffering. Only when the aggregates are no more is there no more suffering." Having thus given him the contemplation of feelings as subject of meditation, Sariputta went away. Samitigutta, following the Elder's instruction, developed insight and realised the six supernormal powers (chalabhiñña) as an arahant.22

Again, when Anathapindika was lying on his deathbed, Sariputta visited him, accompanied by Ananda. Sariputta preached to the dying man on non-attachment, and Anathapindika was greatly moved by the profound discourse.23

Another sickbed sermon given by the Elder to Anathapindika is preserved in the Sotapatti-Samyutta (Vagga 3, Sutta 6). In this discourse, Anathapindika is reminded that those things which lead to rebirth in states of woe are no longer in him, but that he possesses the four basic qualities of stream-entry (sotapattiyanga) and the eight path factors: in considering this, his pains would subside. As the result, his pains did subside.

Once the Elder Channa was lying ill and in great pain. The Venerable Sariputta paid him a visit, in company with the Elder Maha Cunda. Seeing the sick monk's agonies, Sariputta at once offered to go in search of medicines and suitable food for him. But Channa told them he had decided to take his life, and after they had left he did so. Afterwards the Buddha explained that the Elder Channa's act was without demerit and blameless, since he had attained Arahatship while dying. This story is found in the Channovada Sutta (Majjh. 144).

It is said that whenever Sariputta gave advice, he showed infinite patience; he would admonish and instruct up to a hundred or a thousand times, until his pupil was established in the Fruition of stream-entry. Only then did he discharge him and give his advice to others. Very great was the number of those who, after receiving his instruction and following it faithfully, attained to Arahatship. In the Sacca-vibhanga Sutta (Majjh. 141) the Buddha says: "Sariputta is like a mother who brings forth, while Moggallana is like a nurse of that which has been brought forth. Sariputta trains to the Fruit of stream-entry, and Moggallana trains to the highest goal."

Explaining this passage, the Commentary says: "When Sariputta accepted pupils for training, whether they were ordained by him or by others, he favored them with his material and spiritual help, looked after them in sickness, gave them a subject of meditation and at last, when he knew that they had become stream-winners and had risen above the dangers of the lower worlds, he dismissed them in the confident knowledge that 'Now they can, by their own manly strength, produce the higher stages of Saintship.' Having thus become free from concern about their future, he instructed new groups of pupils. But Maha Moggallana, when training pupils in the same way, did not give up concern for them until they had attained Arahatship. This was because he felt, as was said by the Master: 'As even a little excrement is of evil smell, I do not praise even the shortest spell of existence, be it no longer than a snap of the fingers.'"

But although the Majjhima Commentary says that Sariputta used to lead his regular pupils only up to stream-entry, in individual cases he helped monks to attain the higher stages. The Udana Commentary, for example, says that "at that time bhikkhus in higher training (sekha) often used to approach the Venerable Sariputta for a subject of meditation that could help them to attain the three higher Paths." It was after taking instruction from Sariputta that the Elder Lakuntika Bhaddiya ("The Dwarf") attained Arahatship,24 having been a stream-winner at the time. There is also the case of the Venerable Anuruddha, referred to on p. 27.

It was in this manner that the Venerable Sariputta gave the help of the Dhamma. He was a great leader of men and an outstanding spiritual adviser. To the latter task he brought not only a keen and perceptive understanding of the human mind, but also a warm, human interest in others which must have been a great encouragement to those under his spiritual guidance. We have already seen how ready he was to give generous praise where it was due; he was also keen at all times to meet noble monks, particularly those whom the Master had commended. One such was the Elder Punna Mantaniputta; when Sariputta learned that he had come on a visit he went to meet him. Without telling him who he was, he listened to Punna's great discourse, the Stage Coach simile (Majjh. No. 24), and when it was ended gave it high praise.

Administering to the physical as well as the spiritual needs of the monks under his charge, restraining them with kindly admonitions and encouraging them with the praise their efforts deserved, guiding them on the path showing in all he did that vital sympathetic interest which draws forth the best from a pupil, Sariputta combined the qualities of a perfect teacher with those of a perfect friend. He was ready to help in every way, in small things as in great. Filled with the virtue of the Holy Life himself, he was quick to see virtue in others, expert in developing it in those in whom it was latent, and among the first to extol it where it was in full flower. His was no cold, aloof perfection, but the richest intermingling of spiritual exaltation with the qualities that are finest and most endearing in a human being.

Attainment
Two stanzas in the Theragatha (995, 996) relate, in words ascribed to the Venerable Sariputta himself, the way in which he attained Arahatship. There he tells us:

"It was to another that the Blessed One was teaching the Dhamma; to the Dhamma-preaching I listened intently for my own good. And not in vain, for freed from all defilements, I gained release."

In the next two verses (996-7) the Elder declares that he felt no inclination to develop the five supernormal powers (abhiñña). However, the Iddhividha-Katha of the Patisambhida Magga credits him with possessing the intensive degree of meditative concentration called "the power of intervention by concentration" (samadhi-vipphara-iddhi), which is capable of intervening in certain normal physiological processes or other natural events. This is illustrated by the anecdote in the Visuddhimagga, Ch. XII, which records that once when the Venerable Sariputta was living with the Elder Maha Moggallana at Kapotakandara, he was sitting meditating in the open with his hair freshly shaved when he was given a malicious blow on the head by a mischievous spirit. The blow was a very severe one, but at the time it was given "the Elder was absorbed in meditative attainment; consequently he suffered no harm." The source of this story is the Udana (IV.4) which continues the account as follows:

The Venerable Maha Moggallana saw the incident and approached the Venerable Sariputta to ask how he fared. He asked him: "Brother, are you comfortable? Are you doing well? Does nothing trouble you?"

"I am comfortable, brother Moggallana," said the Venerable Sariputta. "I am doing well, brother Moggallana. Only my head troubles me a little."

Whereupon the Venerable Maha Moggallana said: "O wonderful is it, brother Sariputta! O marvelous is it, brother Sariputta! How great is the psychic power, and how great is the might of the Venerable Sariputta! For just now, brother Sariputta, a certain demon gave you a blow on the head. And a mighty blow it was! With such a blow one might fell an elephant seven or seven and a half cubits high, or one might split a mountain peak. But the Venerable Sariputta says only this, 'I am comfortable, brother Moggallana. I am doing well, brother Moggallana. Only my head troubles me a little.'"

Then the Venerable Sariputta replied: "O wonderful is it, brother Moggallana! O marvelous is it, brother Moggallana! How great is the psychic power and how great is the might of the Venerable Moggallana, that he should see any demon at all! As for me, I have not seen so much as a mud-sprite!"

The Anupada Sutta (Majjh. III) contains a description of Sariputta's attainments given by the Buddha himself. In it the Blessed One declares that the Venerable Sariputta had mastered the nine meditative attainments, that is the four fine-material and four immaterial jhanas and the cessation of perception and feeling. And in the Sariputta Samyutta25 the Venerable Elder mentions the fact himself, in speaking to Ananda, adding that in all the stages he was free of any self-reference: "I had no such thoughts as 'I am entering the jhana; I have entered it; I am rising from it.'" And on another occasion he describes to Ananda how he attained to such developed concentration of mind that with regard to the earth element he was without earth perception of them. Yet it seems that he was without perception of them. Yet it seems that he was not entirely without perception of another kind, his only perception being that "Nibbana is ceasing of coming-to-be" (bhava-nirodha).26

This detached attitude to the jhanic attainments may have been due to the meditative "abiding in voidness" (suññata-vihara) which the Venerable Sariputta cultivated. We read in the Pindapata-parisuddhi Sutta (Majjh. 151) that the Buddha once remarked on the Venerable Sariputta's radiant features and asked him by which state of mind this radiance had been caused.27 The Venerable Sariputta replied that he frequently practiced the abiding in voidness, upon which the Buddha said that this was the abode of great men, and proceeded to describe it in detail. The Udana records that on three occasions the Master saw the Venerable Sariputta seated in meditation outside the monastery and uttered verses (udana) in praise of a firm and calm mind.

We may perhaps imagine the Venerable Sariputta seated in meditation in a bower such as that mentioned in the Devadaha Sutta (Khandha Samyutta, No.2), where it is said "Once the Blessed One lived in the Sakya country, at Devadaha, a market town of the Sakyas... At that time the Venerable Sariputta was seated, not far from the Blessed One, under an Elagala bush." The Commentary to the text tells us: "At Devadaha there was a bower under an Elagala bush. This bush grows where there is a constant supply of flowing water. People had made a bower with four posts over which they let the bush grow, forming a roof. Under it they made a seat by placing bricks there and strewing it with sand. It was a cool place for the daytime, with a fresh breeze blowing from the water." It may well have been in some such rustic shelter as this that the Buddha saw Sariputta deep in meditation, on those occasions when he extolled his disciple's tranquillity and detachment.

Concerning his attainment to analytical knowledge (patisambhida-ñana), the Venerable Sariputta speaks of it in the Anguttara Nikaya (Fours, No. 172), where he says:

"It was half a month after my ordination, friends that I realized, in all their parts and details, the analytical knowledge of meaning, the analytical knowledge of the Dhamma, the analytical knowledge of language, the analytical knowledge of perspicuity. These I expound in many ways, teach them and make them known, establish and reveal them, explain and clarify them. If anyone has any doubt or uncertainty, he may ask me and I shall explain (the matter). Present is the Master who is well acquainted with our attainments."

From all of this it is evident that the Venerable Sariputta was a master of all the stages of attainment up to and including the highest insight-knowledge. What could be more aptly said of him than this, in the Buddha's own words:

"If one could ever say rightly of one that he has come to mastery and perfection in noble virtue, in noble concentration, in noble wisdom and noble liberation, it is of Sariputta that one could thus rightly declare.

"If one could ever say rightly of one that he is the Blessed One's true son, born of his speech, born of the Dhamma, formed of the Dhamma, heir to the Dhamma, not heir to worldly benefit, it is Sariputta that one could thus rightly declare.

"After me, O monks, Sariputta rightly turns the supreme Wheel of Dhamma, even as I have turned it."

Majjh. 111, Anupada Sutta

The Turner of the Wheel
The discourses of Sariputta and the books attributed to him form a comprehensive body of teaching that for scope and variety of exposition can stand beside that of the Master himself. Sariputta understood in a unique way how to organize and present the rich material of the Dhamma lucidly, in a manner that was intellectually stimulating and also an inspiration to practical effort. We find this exemplified in two classic discourses of the Majjhima Nikaya, the Samma-ditthi Sutta (No. 9) and the Greater Sutta on the Elephant Footprint Simile (No. 28).

The Greater Discourse on the Elephant Footprint Simile28 is a masterpiece of methodical treatment. It begins with the statement that the Four Noble Truths comprise everything that is salutary, then singles out the Truth of Suffering as being identifiable with the five aggregates of personality. From these, the aggregate of corporeality is chosen for detailed investigation; it is shown to consist of the four great elements, each of which is said to be internal and external. The bodily parts and functions belonging to the internal element are stated in detail, and it is said of both the internal and external elements that they neither belong to a self, nor constitute a self. This insight leads to disgust and detachment regarding the elements.

The discourse then goes on to show the impermanence of the mighty external elements when they are involved in great upheavals of nature, and against that background it is stressed that this tiny body, the product of craving, can never be regarded as "I" or "mine" or considered in the sense of "I am." And when a monk who has this firm and deeply rooted insight meets with abuse, blame and hostility on the part of others, he is able to analyze the situation soberly and so remain master of it. He recognizes that the painful feeling that has arisen in him is produced by ear-contact, which is in itself no more than a conditioned phenomenon; and of all the constituent parts of the situation he knows that they are impermanent. This he discerns with reference to contact, feeling, perception, formations and consciousness. At this point of the discourse we see that the other four aggregates, the mental components of personality, are introduced in an organic context, together with the already mentioned factor of contact. The discourse then continues: "Then his mind, just by taking only the elements as its object, becomes elated, gladdened, firm and intent; and even if he is beaten and injured he will think: 'This body is of such a nature that is liable to such injuries.'" Thereupon he recollects the Master's Simile of the Saw and will resolve to follow the Buddha's injunction to suffer all injuries in patience, whatever may happen to him.

But, the sermon continues, if when thus remembering the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha the monk's equanimity does not endure, he will be stirred by a sense of urgency and feel ashamed that, in spite of that recollection of the Triple Gem, he could not remain constant. On the other hand, if his endurance persists he will experience happiness. "Even to this extent, much has been achieved by that monk," says the sutta.

Here all the four elements are treated identically. The concluding section starts by comparing the body and its constituent parts with a house, which is made up of its various components. After that follows an exposition of the conditioned arising of the sixfold perceptual consciousness. In mentioning the five sense-organs and sense-objects as the basic conditions for the arising of five-sense consciousness, derived corporeality is here introduced by means of a prominent part of it, thus completing the treatment of the corporeal aggregate. With the state of consciousness having thus arisen, all five aggregates are given, and in that way their conjunction can be understood, as well as their dependent origination. And in this connection Sariputta quotes the Master: "He who understands dependent origination understands the Dhamma; and he who understands the Dhamma understands dependent origination." Desire, inclination and attachment in regard to the five aggregates is the origin of suffering. Removal of that desire, inclination and attachment is the cessation of suffering. And of the monk who has understood this it is said: "Even to this extent, much has been achieved by that monk," Thus the exposition is rounded off with the Four Noble Truths. This discourse is indeed like an intricate and beautifully constructed piece of music ending on a solemn and majestic chord.

Another model exposition of the Venerable Sariputta's is the Samma-ditthi Sutta.29 This is a masterpiece of teaching, which also provides a framework for further elaboration, such as given in the extensive commentary to it. The Commentary says: "In the Buddha Word as collected in the five great Nikayas there is no discourse other than the Discourse on Right Understanding, wherein the Four Noble Truths are stated thirty-two times, and thirty-two times the state of Arahatship." The same discourse also gives us an original exposition of dependent origination, with slight, but very instructive, variations. Each factor of dependent origination is used, as are also the additional sections, to illustrate the right understanding of the Four Noble Truths, the comprehension of which is thus greatly enhanced, broadened and deepened. This discourse has been widely used for instructional purposes throughout the centuries down to the present day.

Another of the Venerable Sariputta's discourses is the Sama-citta Sutta30 which was listened to by the "devas of tranquil mind." It is concerned with the first three stages of sanctitude, the stream-winner, the once-returner and the nonreturner. Its purpose is to clarify the question of their residuum of rebirths, in the five-sense world or in the fine-material and non-material worlds, which depends upon their mode of practice and on the fetters of existence still remaining. It is a very short discourse, but had a singular impact on the huge assembly of devas who, according to tradition, assembled to hear it. It is said that a very large number of them attained Arahatship, and innumerable were those who reached stream-entry. This discourse of the Venerable Sariputta is, in fact, counted among the few which had unusually far-reaching results among beings of the higher worlds; and although it is a very brief text rather cryptic without the commentarial explanation, it had a high reputation in succeeding centuries. It is the sermon that was preached by the arahant Mahinda on the evening of his arrival in Ceylon, and the Mahavamsa (XIV, 34ff), Ceylon's famous chronicle, relates that on this occasion, also, numerous devas listened and achieved penetration of the Dhamma.

The high regard in which the discourse is held, and the strong impact ascribed to it, may be attributed to the fact that it helps those on the Path to define their position as to the kind of rebirths still to be expected by them. Devas on higher levels of development are sometimes inclined to regard their heavenly status as final, and do not expect to be reborn in the five-sense world, as may sometimes be the case. The Great Elder's discourse gave them a criterion by which to judge their position. For worldlings still outside the Paths, as well, it must have offered valuable orientation for the direction of their efforts.

The Sangiti Sutta ("The Recital") and Dasuttara Sutta ("Up to Ten"), two more of the Venerable Sariputta's sermons, are the last two texts of the Digha Nikaya, the Collection of Long Discourses. Both these texts are compilations of doctrinal terms, in which a large number of topics are classified as falling into groups of from one to ten members. The reason for bringing the compilation only up to ten may have been that there are only very few groups of doctrinal terms extending beyond ten members, and these could be supposed to be well known and easily remembered. The Sangiti Sutta was preached in the presence of the Buddha, and at its conclusion received his express approval.

While in the Sangiti Sutta the doctrinal terms are arranged solely in numerical groups of one to ten, in the Dasuttara Sutta each of these ten groups has tenfold subdivision which serves to bring out the practical significance of these groups, for example:

"One thing(1) is of great importance, (2) should be developed, (3) should be fully known, (4) should be abandoned, (5) implies decline, (6) implies progress, (7) is hard to penetrate, (8) should be made to arise, (9) should be directly known, (10) should be realized. What is the one thing of great importance? Heedfulness in salutary things..."

These texts must have been compiled at a fairly late period of the Buddha's and the Venerable Sariputta's life, when there was already in existence a large body of doctrine and carefully transmitted discourses which required organizing for ready use, and also anthologies of salient features of the Dhamma became a useful aid in a comprehensive study of the Teaching. The Sangiti Sutta was delivered at the time of Nigantha Nataputta's death, on the date of which, however, scholars differ. It was, in fact, this event that occasioned the preaching of the sutta, for it speaks of the dissensions, schisms and doctrinal disagreements that arose among the Jains immediately after the death of their Master, Nigantha Nataputta, otherwise Mahavira. This was taken as a warning example by the Venerable Sariputta, who in his discourse stresses that this text "should be recited by all in concord and without dissension, so that the Holy Life should last long for the welfare and happiness of gods and men." The commentators say that the Sangiti Sutta is meant to convey the "flavor of concord" (samaggi-rasa) in the Teaching, which is strengthened by doctrinal proficiency (desana-kusalata).

The practical purpose of the Dasuttara Sutta is indicated in the Venerable Sariputta's introductory verses:

"The Dasuttara (Discourse) I shall proclaim — a teaching for the attainment of Nibbana and the ending of suffering, the release from all bondage."

Dasuttaram pavakkhami dhammam nibbanappattiya dukkhas' antakiriyaya sabbaganthapamocanam.

It seems likely that these two suttas served as a kind of index to selected teachings. They may have been useful also to those monks who did not memorize a great many texts; to them they may have been helpful in presenting numerous aspects of the Teaching in a form that was easily memorized and assimilated. Both of these discourses admirably illustrate the Venerable Sariputta's concern with the preservation of the Dhamma, and his systematic way of ensuring that it was transmitted intact in all its details. It was for that purpose that he provided "study aids" such as these and other discourses, together with works like the Niddesa.

* * *
A summary of other discourses given by the Venerable Sariputta is included at the end of this book. We shall now turn to a consideration of larger canonical works attributed to him.

The first is the Niddesa, which belongs to the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka. it is the only work of an exclusively commentarial character included in the Pali Tipitaka. Of its two parts, the Maha Niddesa is a commentary to the Atthaka-vagga of the Sutta Nipata, while the Cula Niddesa comments on the Parayana-vagga and the Khaggavisana Sutta, likewise of the Sutta Nipata.

The Atthaka-vagga and the Parayana-vagga are the last two books of the Sutta Nipata, and doubtlessly belong to the oldest parts not only of that work but of the entire Sutta Pitaka. They were highly appreciated even in the earlier days of the Sangha, and of the Buddhist laity as well, as is testified by the fact that the Udana records a recital of the Atthaka-vagga by Sona Thera and the Anguttara Nikaya a recital of the Parayana-vagga by the female lay disciple, Nandamata. On at least five occasions the Buddha himself has given explanations of verses contained in these two parts of the Sutta Nipata. Apart from the high esteem in which they were evidently held, the fact that these two verse collections contain numerous archaic words and terse aphoristic sayings makes it understandable that in very early days a commentary on them was composed which was later included in the canonical scriptures. The traditional attribution of it to the Venerable Sariputta must be regarded as highly plausible.31 It is quite in character with the great Elder's concern with the methodical instruction of bhikkhus that the Niddesa contains not only word explanations, clarifications of the context and supporting quotations from the Buddha Word, but also material obviously meant for linguistic instruction, such as the addition of many synonyms of the word explained. On this subject, Prof. E.J. Thomas writes as follows:32

The most characteristic feature of the Niddesa... consists of a list of synonyms of the words commented on. Such lists are not used to explain the meaning of a word in a particular context. They are repeated in the same form wherever the word occurs and were evidently intended to be learned in the same way as the modern kosha (dictionary)... Much of this is also found in the Abhidhamma books, but in the Niddesa it is used as general matter applied to passages for which it was not immediately intended... This shows a system for learning the vocabulary of the Canon, and for explaining archaic forms, but no further grammatical teaching occurs apart from the description of certain terms as particles... in the Niddesa we thus have direct evidence of a general system of instruction applied to a definite work, consisting of interpretation, doctrinal teaching and the verbal expositions of the beginnings of grammar. The Abhidhamma books and related works like the Patisambhida Magga give other traces of its existence. It appears to be this system which is expressly referred to in the Niddesa (1, 234) and other places as the four kinds of analysis (patisambhida); the analysis of meanings (attha), of conditions (dhamma), of grammatical analysis (nirutti), and clearness of insight (patibhana). The Nirutti of the Niddesa is of the kind that we should expect to exist when Pali was a living language. All the grammatical analysis that was required was a knowledge of those words in the Scriptures that had become obsolete, and the explanation of unusual grammatical forms by means of current expressions... We can see from its different forms and readings that it underwent changes and received additions, and in the case of a work used continually for instruction this would be inevitable.

The Venerable Sariputta states that he attained to the four kinds of analytical knowledge (patisambhida) two weeks after his ordination, that is, on attaining Arahatship.33 This fact, and the extensive application of nirutti-patisambhida, "grammatical analysis," in the Niddesa, make it quite probable that he was actually the author of both the Niddesa and the Patisambhida Magga.

The Maha Niddesa contains also the commentary on the Sariputta Sutta (also called the "Therapañha Sutta") which forms the last text of the Atthaka-vagga. The first part of this text, with verses in praise of the Master and questions put to him, is ascribed to Sariputta. The Maha Niddesa explains the opening stanza as referring to the Buddha's return from Tavatimsa heaven after he had preached the Abhidhamma there. Apart from that it contains only his questions, the essential part of the text being the Buddha's replies.

The Patisambhida Magga has the appearance of a manual of higher Buddhist studies, and its range is as broad as that of the mind of its reputed author. At the beginning it presents treatises on 72 types of knowledge (ñana) and on the types of wrong speculative views (ditthi), both of which show the methodical and penetrative mind of the Venerable Sariputta. In the Treatise on Knowledge, as well as in other chapters of the work, there are found a large number of doctrinal terms appearing for the first time and only in the Patisambhida Magga. It also contains elaborations of terms and teachings that are mentioned only briefly in other and older parts of the Sutta Pitaka. In addition to this, it contains material on meditation of great practical value, as for example on mindfulness of breathing,34 metta-bhavana, and numerous insight-exercises. There is also, to give variety to the subject matter, a passage of hymnic character and great beauty, on the Great Compassion of the Tathagata. Mahanama Thera of Ceylon, who wrote the Saddhammappakasini, the commentary to the work, confidently ascribes it to the Venerable Sariputta, and in the introductory stanzas gives eloquent praise of the great Elder. In the Patisambhida Magga itself, Sariputta is mentioned twice, once as being one who possesses samadhi-vipphara-iddhi (in the Iddhividha-katha) and again in the Maha-pañña-katha, Solasa-pañña-niddesa, where it is said: "Those whose wisdom is equal to that of Sariputta, they partake to some extent of the Buddha-knowledge."

We come now to one of the most important contributions made by the Venerable Sariputta to Buddhist teaching. According to tradition (e.g., in the Atthasalini), the Buddha preached the Abhidhamma in the Tavatimsa heaven to his mother, Queen Maya, who had been reborn as deva in that world. He did this for three months, and when returning daily to earth for his meals, he gave to the Venerable Sariputta the "method" (naya) of that portion of Abhidhamma he had preached. The Atthasalini says; "Thus the giving of the method was to the Chief Disciple, who was endowed with analytical knowledge, as though the Buddha stood on the edge of the shore and pointed out the ocean with his open hand. To the Elder the doctrine taught by the Blessed One in hundreds and thousands of methods became very clear." Thereafter, the Elder passed on what he had learned to his five hundred disciples.

Further it is said: "The textual order of the Abhidhamma originated with Sariputta; the numerical series in the Great Book (Patthana) was also determined by him. In this way the Elder, without spoiling the unique doctrine, laid down the numerical series in order to make it easy to learn, remember, study and teach the Law."

The Atthasalini, the Commentary to the Dhamma-sangani also ascribes to Sariputta the following contributions to the canonical Abhidhamma:

(a) The 42 couplets (dyads; duka) of the Suttanta Matika, which follows the Abhidhamma Matika, both of which preface the seven Abhidhamma books. The 42 Suttanta couplets are explained in the Dhammasangani and this likewise has probably to be ascribed to the Elder.

(b) The fourth and last part of the Dhammasangani, the Atthuddhara-kanda, the "Synopsis."

(c) The arrangement for the recitation of the Abhidhamma (vacanamagga).

(d) The Numerical Section (gañanacara) of the Patthana.

In the Anupada Sutta35 the Buddha himself speaks of the Venerable Sariputta's analysis of meditative consciousness into its chief mental concomitants, which the Elder undertook from his own experience, after rising from each of the meditative attainments in succession. This analysis may well be either a precursor or an abridgment of the detailed analysis of jhana-consciousness given in the Dhammasangani.

Concerning the Venerable Sariputta's mastery of the Dhamma, and its exposition, the Buddha had this to say:

"The Essence of Dhamma (dhammadhatu) has been so well penetrated by Sariputta, O monks, that if I were to question him therein for one day in different words and phrases, Sariputta would reply likewise for one day in various words and phrases. And if I were to question him for one night, or a day and a night, or for two days and nights, even up to seven days and nights, Sariputta would expound the matter for the same period of time, in various words and phrases."

Nidana Samyutta, No. 32

And on another occasion the Master employed this simile:

"If he is endowed with five qualities, O monks, the eldest son of a World-ruling Monarch righteously turns the Wheel of sovereignty that had been turned by his father. And that Wheel of Sovereignty cannot be overturned by any hostile human being. What are the five qualities? The eldest son of a World-ruling Monarch knows what is beneficial, knows the Law, knows the right measure, knows the right time and knows the society (with which he has to deal, parisa).

Similarly, O monks, is Sariputta endowed with five qualities and rightly turns the supreme Wheel of Dhamma, even as I have turned it. And this Wheel cannot be overturned by ascetics, or priests, by deities or Brahma, nor by anyone else in the world. What are those five qualities? Sariputta, O monks, knows what is beneficial, knows the Teaching, knows the right measure, knows the right time and knows the assembly (he is to address)."

Anguttara Nikaya, V. 132

Other Theras were not behind in their appreciation. The Elder Vangisa, in his encomium in the Theragatha (vv. 1231-3) praises Sariputta who "teaches in brief and also speaks in detail," while in the same compilation other great Elders, Maha Kassapa (vv. 1082-5) and Maha Moggallana (vv. 1158; 1176-7; 1182) also give their meed of praise. And the Venerable Maha Moggallana, at the end of Sariputta's Discourse on Guiltlessness,36 uttered these words of tribute to his friend's sermon: "To (virtuous and earnest) monks who have heard the exposition of the Venerable Sariputta it will be like food and drink to their ears and mind. How well does he lift up his fellow-monks from what is unwholesome, and confirm them in what is good!"

The relationship in which the two Chief Disciples stood to one another in the matter of teaching was explained by the Buddha when he said:


"Associate, O monks with Sariputta and Moggallana, and keep company with them! They are wise bhikkhus and helpers of their fellow-monks. Sariputta is like a mother who brings forth, and Moggallana is like a nurse to what has been brought forth. Sariputta trains (his pupils) in the Fruition of stream-entry, and Moggallana trains them for the highest goal.

"Sariputta is able to expound the Four Noble Truths in detail, to teach them and make them intelligible, to proclaim, reveal and explain them, and make them clear."

Majjh. 141, Sacca-vibhanga Sutta

And in the Anguttara Nikaya (11, 131);

"A monk of faith, O bhikkhus, should cherish this right aspiration: 'Oh, may I become such as Sariputta and Moggallana!' For Sariputta and Moggallana are the model and standard for my bhikkhu-disciples."

That the Venerable Sariputta's great reputation as a teacher of the Dhamma long survived him, to become a tradition among later Buddhists, is shown by the concluding passages of the Milinda-pañha, written some three hundred years later. There, King Milinda compares Nagasena Thera to the Venerable Sariputta, saying: "In this Buddha's Dispensation there is none other like yourself for answering questions, except the Elder Sariputta, the Marshal of the Law."

That grand reputation still lives today, upheld by the cherished teachings of the Great Disciple, preserved and enshrined in some of the oldest books of Buddhism alongside the words of his Master.

The Elder's Relatives
As we have already seen, the Venerable Sariputta was born into a brahman family of Upatissa village (or Nalaka), near Rajagaha, his father's name being Vaganta and his mother's Sari. He had three brothers: Cunda, Upasena and Revata, and three sisters named Cala, Upacala and Sisupacala. All six took ordination and attained Arahatship.

Cunda was known by the name Samanuddesa, meaning "the Novice" in the Sangha, even after becoming a bhikkhu; this was to distinguish him from the Elder Maha Cunda. At the time of Sariputta's death, Cunda was his attendant and it was he who informed the Buddha of his passing away, bringing with him the Chief Disciple's relics. The story is told in the Cunda Sutta, an outline of which will be given elsewhere in this book.

Upasena, who came to be known as Vagantaputta, or "Son of Vaganta," as Sariputta is "Son of Sari," was said by the Buddha to be foremost among those of all-pleasing deportment (samantappasadika). He died of a snakebite, as is related in the Salatayana Samyutta, Vagga 7, Sutta 7.

Revata was the youngest of the brothers, and their mother, wishing to prevent his seeking ordination, had him married when he was a very young boy. But on the wedding day he saw the grandmother of his future wife, an old woman of 120, stricken with all the signs of decrepitude. At once he became disgusted with worldly life. Escaping from the wedding procession by a ruse, he fled to a monastery and was ordained. In later years he was on his way to see the Buddha when he stopped at a forest of acacia trees (khadira-vana), and while spending the rainy season there he attained Arahatship. After that he became known as Revata Khadiravaniya — "Revata of the Acacia Forest." The Buddha distinguished him as being the foremost among forest dwellers.

The three sisters, Cala, Upacala and Sisupacala, wishing to follow their brothers' example, became nuns after their marriage. In marriage, each of them had a son who was named after his mother Cala (or Cali) and so on. These three sons were also ordained, being received as novices by Revata Khadtravaniya. Their good conduct was praised by the Venerable Sariputta, who met them when he went to see his youngest brother who was ill. This is recorded in the Commentary to the Theragatha, v. 42.

Cala, Upacala and Sisupacala as nuns are said to have been approached by Mara with taunting and tempting questions, to which they gave excellent replies. These are recorded in the Theragatha and Bhikkhuni Samyutta.

In contrast to all these, Sariputta's mother was a staunch brahman and hostile to the Buddha's Teaching and his followers. In the Commentary to the Dhammapada (v. 400) it is related that once, when the Venerable Sariputta was in his own village of Nalaka with a large retinue of monks, he came to his mother's house in the course of his almsround. His mother gave him a seat and served him with food, but while she did so she uttered abusive words: "Oh, you eater of others' leavings!" she said. "When you fail to get leavings of sour rice-gruel you go from house to house among strangers, licking the leavings off the backs of ladies! And so it was for this that you gave up eighty crores of wealth and became a monk! You have ruined me! Now go on and eat!"

Likewise, when she was serving food to the monks, she said: "So! You are the men who have made my son your page boy! Go on, eat now!"

Thus she continued reviling them, but the Venerable Sariputta spoke not a word. He took his food, ate it and in silence returned to the monastery. The Buddha learned of the incident from the Venerable Rahula, who had been among the monks at the time. All the bhikkhus who heard of it wondered at the Elder's great forbearance, and in the midst of the assembly the Buddha praised him, uttering the stanza:

"He that is free from anger, who performs his duties faithfully.
He that guards the precepts, and is free from lust;
He that has subdued himself, he that wears his last body —
He it is I call a brahman."

It was not until right at the close of Sariputta's life that he was able to convert his mother; that story will be told later on. But the incident that has been related here leads us to a consideration of the great Elder's most pleasing characteristics, his humility, patience and forbearance.

The Unresentful
It is the neighborhood of Jetavana, where the Buddha is residing. Some men are in a group, talking about the noble qualities of the Elder Sariputta. "Such great patience has our noble Elder," they are saying, "that even when people abuse him and strike him, he feels no trace of anger."

"Who is this that never gets angry?" The question is from a brahman, a holder of false views. And when they tell him, "It is our Elder, Sariputta," he retorts: "It must be that nobody has ever provoked him."

"That is not so brahman," they reply. "Well, then, I will provoke him to anger." "Provoke him to anger if you can!" "Leave it to me," says the brahman. "I know just what to do to him."

The Venerable Sariputta enters the city on his round for alms. Approaching him from behind, the brahman strikes him in a tremendous blow on the back. "What was that?" says the Venerable Sariputta; and without so much as turning to look, he continues on his way.

The fire of remorse leaps up in every part of the brahman's body. Prostrating himself at the Elder's feet he begs for pardon. "For what?" asks the Elder, mildly. "To test your patience I struck you," the penitent brahman replies. "Very well, I pardon you."

"Reverend sir," the brahman says, "if you are willing to pardon me, hereafter please take your food only at my house." With these words he takes the Elder's almsbowl, which the Elder willingly yields, and leading him to his house serves him with food.

But those who saw the assault are enraged. They gather at the brahman's house, armed with sticks and stones, to kill him. When the Venerable Sariputta emerges, accompanied by the brahman carrying his bowl, they cry: "Reverend sir, order this brahman to turn back!"

"Why, lay disciples?" asks the Elder. They answer: "The man struck you. We are going to give him what he deserves!"

"But what do you mean? Was it you, or me, he struck?"

"It was you, reverend sir." "Well, if it was me he struck, he has begged my pardon. Go your ways." And so, dismissing the people and permitting the brahman to return, the great Elder calmly makes his way to the monastery.

This incident, recorded in the Dhammapada Commentary, was the occasion of the Buddha's uttering the verses 389 and 390 of the Dhammapada, which are among those that give the Buddha's definition of what constitutes a brahman, that is to say, rectitude of conduct rather than birth or rank.

Let none strike a brahman;
Let no brahman return a blow.
Shame on him that strikes a brahman!
More shame on the brahman who returns the blow!
Not small is the gain to a brahman
Who restrains his mind from what is dear;
As fast as the will to injure wanes
So fast indeed does suffering decline.

Dhammapada, vv 389, 390

The Venerable Sariputta's humility was as great as his patience. He was willing to receive correction from anyone, not only with submission but with gratitude. It is told in the Commentary to the Devaputta Samyutta, Susima Sutta, that once, through a momentary negligence, a corner of the Elder's under-robe was hanging down, and a seven-year-old novice, seeing this, pointed it out to him. The Venerable Sariputta stepped aside at once and arranged the garment in the proper equally-circular way. Then he stood before the novice with folded hands, saying: "Now it is correct, teacher!"37

There is a reference to this incident in the Questions of Milinda, where these verses are ascribed to the Venerable Sariputta:

"One who this very day, at the age of seven, has gone forth —
If he should me, I accept it with (bended) head.
At sight of him, I give him ardent zeal and regard.
With respect may I again and again set him in the teacher's place!"

On one occasion the Buddha mildly reproved Sariputta for not having carried his teaching far enough. When the brahman Dhanañjani was on his deathbed he was visited by the Venerable Sariputta. The Elder, reflecting that brahmans are bent on the Brahma-world (or "union with Brahma") taught the dying man the way to it through the Brahma-viharas. As a result, it is said, the brahman was in fact reborn there.

When the Venerable Sariputta returned from the visit, the Master asked him: "Why, Sariputta, while there was more to do, did you set the brahman Dhanañjani's thoughts on the inferior Brahma-world, and then rising from your seat, leave him?" The Venerable Sariputta replied: "I thought: 'These brahmans are bent on the Brahma-world. Should I not show the brahman Dhanañjani the way to the communion with Brahma?"

"The brahman Dhanañjani has died, Sariputta," said the Buddha, "and he has been reborn in the Brahma-world."

This story, which is found in the Dhanañjani Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya (97), is interesting as an illustration of the undesirability of rebirth in an inferior Brahma-world for one who is capable of bringing rebirth entirely to an end. For while the Buddha himself sometimes showed only the way to Brahma, as for example in the Tevijja Sutta, it seems probable that in the case of Dhanañjani the Master saw that he was fit to receive a higher teaching, while the Venerable Sariputta, lacking the capacity of knowing others' hearts (lokiya-abhiñña), was not able to discern that fact. The result is that Dhanañjani will spend an incalculable period in the Brahma-world and will have to take human birth again before he can achieve the goal.

The Venerable Sariputta received another gentle reproof when, having asked the Buddha why it was that the Sasana of some of the Buddhas of the past did not last very long, and the Buddha had replied that it was because those Enlightened Ones did not preach very much Dhamma, did not lay down regulations for the disciples, nor institute the recital of the Patimokkha, Sariputta said that it was now time for the Blessed One to promulgate the regulations and to recite the Patimokkha, so that the Holy Life might last for a long period. The Buddha said: "Let it be, Sariputta! the Tathagata himself will know the time for it. The Master will not lay down regulations for the disciples nor recite the Patimokkha until signs of corruption have appeared in the Sangha."38

The disciple's concern that the Sasana should endure as long as possible is characteristic of Sariputta; equally characteristic was it of the Buddha that he did not wish to lay down regulations until such time as it was absolutely necessary to do so. He went on to explain that at that time the least-advanced member of the Sangha was a Sotapanna (perhaps a fact of which the Venerable Sariputta was not aware), and therefore it was not yet necessary to lay down the rules of the bhikkhu life.

The Catuma Sutta39 records another occasion when the great Elder was admonished by the Master. A large number of monks, newly ordained, as the Commentary tell us, by the Venerable Sariputta and Maha Moggallana, had come with the latter to pay their respects to the Buddha for the first time. On arrival they were allotted quarters and started chatting with the resident monks of Catuma. Hearing the noise, the Buddha summoned the resident monks to question them about it, and was told that the commotion was caused by the new arrivals. The text does not say the visiting monks were present at the time, but they must have been, for the Buddha addressed them with the words: "Go away, monks I dismiss you. You should not stay with me."

The newly ordained monks left, but some persons intervened in their behalf and they were allowed to return.

The Buddha then said to the Venerable Sariputta: "What did you think, Sariputta, when I dismissed that group of monks?"

The Venerable Sariputta replied: "I thought: 'The Blessed One wishes to remain unconcerned and to abide in the state of happiness here-and-now; so we too shall remain unconcerned and abide in the state of happiness here-and-now."

"Hold, Sariputta! Do not allow such a thought ever to arise in you again!" the Buddha said. Then turning to Maha Moggallana, he put the same question.

"When the Blessed One dismissed those monks," replied Maha Moggallana, "I thought: 'The Blessed One wishes to remain unconcerned and to abide in the state of happiness here-and-now. Then I and the Venerable Sariputta should now look after the community of monks.'"

"Well spoken, Moggallana, well spoken!" said the Master. "It is either myself or Sariputta or Moggallana who should look after the community of monks."

The Sutta account is lacking in certain details which would place the story in the proper light necessary for an understanding of all its implications, but it is possible that since the monks who had been dismissed were pupils of Sariputta and Maha Moggallana, the Elder wished to show his displeasure with them and to indicate by his aloofness that they had behaved badly.

Once, when the Buddha was residing at Jetavana, the Venerable Sariputta was the victim of a false accusation. It so happened that at the end of the rains the Elder took leave of the Master and departed with his own retinue of monks on a journey. A large number of monks also took leave of Sariputta, and in dismissing them he addressed those who were known by their personal and family names, by those names. Among them there was a monk who was not known by his personal and family name, but a strong desire arose in him that the Chief Disciple should address him by those names in taking his departure.

In the great throng of monks, however, the Venerable Sariputta did not give him this distinction, and the monk was aggrieved. "He does not greet me as he does the other monks," he thought, and conceived a grudge against Sariputta. At the same time it chanced that the hem of the Elder's robe brushed against him, and this added to his grievance. He approached the Buddha and complained; "Lord, the Venerable Sariputta, doubtless thinking to himself, 'I am the Chief Disciple,' struck me a blow that almost damaged my ear. And having done that without so much as begging my pardon, he set out on his journey."

The Buddha summoned Sariputta into his presence. Meanwhile, the Venerable Maha Moggallana and the Venerable Ananda, knowing that a calumny was about to be exposed, summoned all the monks, convoking an assembly. "Approach, venerable sirs!" they called. "When the Venerable Sariputta is face to face with the Master, he will roar the roar of a lion!"40

And so it came about. When the Master questioned the great Elder, instead of denying the charge he said: "O Lord, one who is not firmly established in the contemplation of the body with regard to his body, such a one may be able to hurt a fellow monk and leave without apologizing." Then followed the Venerable Sariputta's lion's roar. He compared his freedom from anger and hatred with the patience of the earth which receives all things, clean and unclean; his tranquillity of mind to a bull with severed horns, to a lowly Candala youth, to water, fire and wind, and to the removal of impurity; he compared the oppression he felt from his own body to the oppression of snakes and corpses, and the maintenance of his body to that of fatty excrescences. In nine similes he described his own virtues, and nine times the great earth responded to the words of truth. The entire assembly was moved by the majestic force of his utterance.

As the Elder proclaimed his virtues, remorse filled the monk who had unjustly traduced him. Immediately, he fell at the feet of the Blessed One, admitting his slander and confessing his fault. Thereupon the Buddha said: "Sariputta, pardon this deluded man, lest his head should split into seven pieces." Sariputta's reply was: "Venerable sir, I freely pardon this venerable monk." And, with joined palms, he added, "May this venerable monk also pardon me if I have in any way offended him."

In this way they were reconciled. The other monks were filled with admiration, saying: "See, brethren, the surpassing goodness of the Elder! He cherishes neither anger nor hatred against this lying, slanderous monk! Instead, he crouches before him, stretches his hands in reverence, and asks his pardon."

The Buddha's comment was: "Bhikkhus, it is impossible for Sariputta and his like to cherish anger or hatred. Sariputta's mind is like the great earth, firm like a gate post, like a pool of still water."

Unresentful like the earth, firm like a gate post,
With mind like a clear pool, such is the virtuous man
For whom the round of births exists no more.41

Another incident of this nature, in the early Sangha, did not end so happily, for the calumniator refused to admit his fault. He was a monk named Kokalika, who approached the Buddha with a slander against the two Chief Disciples; "Sariputta and Moggallana have bad intentions, O Lord!" he said. "They are in the grip of evil ambition."

The Master replied: "Do not say so, Kokalika! Do not say so! Have friendly and trustful thoughts towards Sariputta and Moggallana! They are of good behavior, and lovable!"

But the misguided Kokalika paid no heed to the Buddha's words. He persisted with his false accusation, and soon after that his whole body became covered with boils, which continued to grow until eventually he died of his illness.

This incident was well-known. It is recorded in the following places in the Sutta-pitaka: Brahma Samyutta No. 10; Sutta Nipata, Mahavagga No. 10; Anguttara Nikaya V. 170, and Takkariya Jataka (No. 481). A comparison of these two incidents reveals the importance of penitence. Neither the Venerable Sariputta nor Maha Moggallana bore the monk Kokalika any ill-will for his malice, and his apologies, had he offered them, would have made no difference to the attitude of the two Chief Disciples. But they would have benefited the erring monk himself, averting the consequences of his bad kamma. Evil rebounds upon those who direct it towards the innocent, and so Kokalika was judged and punished by himself, through his own deeds.

Part III The Further Shore
The Last Debt Paid
We now come to the year of the Master's Parinibbana. The Blessed One had spent the rainy season at Beluva village,42 near Vesali, and when the Retreat was over he left that place and, going by the way he had come, returned by stages to Savatthi and arrived at the Jeta Grove Monastery.

There the Elder Sariputta, the Marshal of the Law, paid homage to the Blessed One and went to his day quarters. When his own disciples had saluted him and left, he swept the place and spread his leather mat. Then, having rinsed his feet, he sat down cross-legged and entered into the state of the Fruition Attainment of Arahatship.

At the time predetermined by him, he arose from the meditation, and this thought occurred to him: "Do the Enlightened Ones have their final passing away first, or the Chief Disciples?" And he saw that it is the Chief Disciples who pass away first. Thereupon he considered his own life-force, and saw that its residue would sustain him only for another week.

He then considered: "Where shall I have my final passing away?" And he thought: "Rahula finally passed away among the deities of the Thirty-three, and the Elder Kondañña the Knower at the Chaddanta Lake.43 Where, then, will be my place?"

While thinking this over repeatedly he remembered his mother, and the thought came to him: "Although she is the mother of seven Arahats44 she has no faith in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. Has she the supportive conditions in her to acquire that faith or has she not?"

Investigating the matter he discerned that she had the supportive conditions for the Path-intuition (abhisamaya) of stream-entry. Then he asked himself: "Though whose instruction can she win to the penetration of truth?"

And he saw that not through anyone else's but only through his own instruction in the Dhamma, could it come about. And following upon that came the thought: "If I now remain indifferent, people will say: 'Sariputta has been a helper to so many others; on the day, for instance, when he preached the Discourse to the Deities of Tranquil Mind a large number of devas attained Arahatship, and still more of them penetrated to the first three Paths; and on other occasions there were many who attained to stream-entry, and there thousands of families who were reborn in heavenly worlds after the Elder had inspired them with joyous confidence in the Triple Gem. Yet despite this he cannot remove the wrong views of his own mother? Thus people may speak of me. Therefore I shall free my mother from her wrong views, and shall have my final passing away in the very chamber where I was born."

Having made that decision, he thought: "This very day I shall ask the Master's permission and then leave for Nalaka." And, calling the elder Cunda, who was his attendant, he said: "Friend Cunda, please ask our group of five hundred bhikkhus to take their bowls and robes, for I wish to go to Nalaka." And the elder Cunda did as he was bidden.

The bhikkhus put their lodgings in order, took their bowls and robes, and presented themselves before the Elder Sariputta. He, for his own part, had tidied up his living quarters and swept the place where he used to spend the day. Then, standing at the gate, he looked back at the place, thinking: "This is my last sight of it. There will be no more coming back."

Then, together with the five hundred bhikkhus he went to the Blessed One, saluted him and spoke: "May, O Lord, the Blessed One permit, may the Exalted One consent: the time of my final passing away has come, I have relinquished the life-force.

Lord of the World, O greatest Sage!
From life I soon shall be released.
Going and coming no more shall be;
This is the last time that I worship thee.

Short is the life that now remains to me;
But seven days from now, and I shall lay
This body down, throwing the burden off.

Grant it, O Master! Give permission, Lord!
At last for me Nibbana's time has come,
Relinquished have I now the will to live."

Now, says the text, if the enlightened One were to have replied, "You may have your final passing away," hostile sectarians would say that he was speaking in praise of death; and if he had replied, "Do not have your final passing away," they would say that he extolled the continuation of the round of existence. Therefore the Blessed One did not speak in either way, but asked: "Where will your final passing away take place?"

The Venerable Sariputta replied: "In the Magadha country, in the village called Nalaka, there in the chamber of my birth shall I finally pass away."

Then the Blessed One said: "Do, Sariputta, what you think timely. But now your elder and younger brethren in the Sangha will no longer have the chance to see a bhikkhu like you. Give them once more a discourse on Dhamma."

The great Elder then gave a discourse, displaying all his descending to mundane truth, rising again, and again descending, he expounded the Dhamma directly and in symbols. And when he had ended his discourse he paid homage at the feet of the Master. embracing his legs, he said: "So that I might worship these feet I have fulfilled the Perfections throughout an aeon and a hundred thousand kalpas. My heart's wish has found fulfillment. From now on there will be no more contact or meeting; severed now is that intimate connection. The City of Nibbana, the unaging, undying, peaceful, blissful, heat-assuaging and secure, which has been entered by many hundreds of thousands of Buddhas — I too shall enter it now.

"If any deed or word of mine did not please you, O Lord, may the Blessed One forgive me! It is now time for me to go."

Now once before, the Buddha had answered this, when he said: "There is nothing, be it in deeds or words, wherein I should have to reproach you, Sariputta. For you are learned, Sariputta, of great wisdom, of broad and bright, quick, keen and penetrative wisdom."45

So now he made answer in the same way: "I forgive you, Sariputta," he said. "But there was not a single word or deed of yours that was displeasing to me. Do now, Sariputta, what you think timely."

From this we see that on those few occasions when the Master seemed to reproach his Chief Disciple, it was not that he was displeased with him in any way, but rather that he was pointing out another approach to a situation, another way of viewing a problem.

Immediately after the master had given his permission and the Venerable Sariputta had risen from paying homage at his feet, the Great Earth cried out, and with a single huge tremor shook to its watery boundaries. It was as though the Great Earth wished to say: "Though I bear these girdling mountain ranges with Mount Meru, the encircling mountain walls (cakkavala) and the Himavant, I cannot sustain on this day so vast an accumulation of virtue!" And mighty thunder split the heavens, a vast cloud appeared and heavy rain poured down.

Then the Blessed One thought: "I shall now permit the Marshal of the Law to depart." and he rose from the seat of the Law, went to his Perfumed Cell and there stood on the Jewel Slab. Three times the Venerable Sariputta circumambulated the cell, keeping it to his right, and paid reverence at four places. And this thought was in his mind: "an aeon and a hundred thousand kalpas ago it was, when I fell down at the feet of the Buddha Anomadassi and made the aspiration to see you. This aspiration has been realized, and I have seen you. At the first meeting it was my first sight of you; now it is my last, and there will be none in the future." And with raised hands joined in salutation he departed, going backwards until the Blessed One was out of sight. And yet again the Great Earth, unable to bear it, trembled to its watery boundaries.

The Blessed One then addressed the bhikkhus who surrounded him. "Go, bhikkhus," he said. "Accompany your elder brother." At these words, all the four assemblies of devotees at once went out of the Jeta Grove, leaving the Blessed One there alone. The citizens of Savatthi also, having heard the news, went out of the city in an unending stream carrying incense and flowers in their hands; and with their hair wet (the sign of mourning), they followed the Elder lamenting and weeping.

The Venerable Sariputta then admonished the crowd, saying: "This is a road that none can avoid," and asked them to return. And to the monks who had accompanied him, he said: "You may turn back now! Do not neglect the Master!"

Thus he made them go back, and with only his own group of disciples, he continued on his way. Yet still some of the people followed him, lamenting. "Formerly our Venerable went on journeys and returned. But this is a journey without return!" To them the Elder said: "Be heedful, friends! Of such nature, indeed, are all things that are formed and conditioned!" And he made them turn back.

During his journey the Venerable Sariputta spent one night wherever he stopped, and thus for one week he favored many people with a last sight of him. Reaching Nalaka village in the evening, he stopped near a banyan tree at the village gate. It happened that at the time a nephew of the elder, Uparevata by name, had gone outside the village and there he saw the Venerable Sariputta. He approached the elder, saluted him, and remained standing.

The Elder asked him: "Is your grand-aunt at home?" "Yes, venerable sir," he replied. "Then go and announce our coming," said the Elder. "And if she asks why I have come, tell her that I shall stay in the village for one day, and ask her to prepare my birth chamber and provide lodgings for five hundred bhikkhus."

Uparevata went to his grand-aunt and said: "Grandaunt, my uncle has come."

"Where is he now?" she asked.

"At the village gate."

"Is he alone, or has someone else come with him?"

"He has come with five hundred bhikkhus."

And when she asked him, "Why has he come?" he gave her the message the elder had entrusted to him. Then she thought: "Why does he ask me to provide lodgings for so many? After becoming a monk in his youth, does he want to be a layman again in his old age?" But she arranged the birth chamber for the Elder and lodgings for the bhikkhus, had torches lit and then sent for the Elder.

The Venerable Sariputta then, accompanied by the bhikkhus, went up to the terrace of the house and entered his birth chamber. After seating himself, he asked the bhikkhus to go to their quarters. They had hardly left, when a grave illness, dysentery, fell upon the Elder, and he felt severe pains. When one pail was brought in, another was carried out. The brahman lady thought: "The news of my son is not good," and she stood leaning by the door of her own room.

And then it happened, the text tells us, that the Four Great Divine Kings asked themselves: "Where may he now be dwelling, the Marshal of the Law?" And they perceived that he was at Nalaka, in his birth chamber, lying on the bed of his Final Passing Away. "Let us go for a last sight of him," they said.

When they reached the birth chamber, they saluted the Elder and remained standing.

"Who are you?" asked the Elder.

"We are the Great Divine Kings, venerable sir."

"Why have you come?"

"We want to attend on you during your illness."

"Let it be!" said the Venerable Sariputta. "There is an attendant here. You may go."

When they had left, there came in the same manner Sakka the king of the gods, and after him, Maha Brahma, and all of them the elder dismissed in the same way.

The brahman lady, seeing the coming and going of these deities, asked herself: "Who could they have been, who came and paid homage to my son, and then left?" And she went to the door of the elder's room and asked the Venerable Cunda for news about the Elder's condition. Cunda conveyed the inquiry to the Elder, telling him: "The Great Upasika (lay devotee) has come."

The Venerable Sariputta asked her: "Why have you come at this unusual hour?"

"To see you, dear," she replied. "Tell me, who were those who came first?"

"The Four Great Divine Kings, upasika."

"Are you, then, greater than they?" she asked.

"They are like temple attendants," said the Elder. "Ever since our Master took rebirth they have stood guard over him with swords in hand."

"After they had left, who was it that came then, dear?"

"It was Sakka the king of the gods."

"Are you then, greater than the king of gods, dear?"

"He is like a novice who carries a bhikkhu's belongings," answered Sariputta. "When our Master returned from the heaven of the Thirty-three (Tavatimsa), Sakka took his bowl and robe and descended to earth together with him."

"And when Sakka had gone, who was it that came after him, filling the room with his radiance?"

"Upasika, that was your own Lord and Master, the Great Brahma."

"Then are you greater, my son, even than my Lord, the Great Brahma?"

"Yes, Upasika. On the day when our Master was born, it is said that four Great Brahmas received the Great Being in a golden net."

Upon hearing this, the brahman lady thought: "If my son's power is such as this, what must be the majestic power of my son's Master and Lord?" And while she was thinking this, suddenly the fivefold rapture arose in her, suffusing her entire body.

The Elder thought: "Rapture and joy have arisen in my mother. Now is the time to preach the Dhamma to her." And he said: "What was it you were thinking about, upasika?"

"I was thinking," she replied, "if my son has such virtue, what must be the virtue of his Master?"

The Venerable Sariputta answered: "At the moment of my Master's birth, at his Great Renunciation (of worldly life), on his attaining Enlightenment and at his first turning of the Dhamma Wheel — on all these occasions the ten thousand world-system quaked and shook. None is there who equals him in virtue, in concentration, in wisdom, in deliverance, and in the knowledge and vision of deliverance." And he then explained to her in detail the words of homage: "Such indeed is that Blessed One..." (Iti pi so Bhagava...). And thus he gave her an exposition of the Dhamma, basing it on the virtues of the Buddha.

When the Dhamma talk given by her beloved son had come to an end, the brahman lady was firmly established in the Fruition of stream-entry, and she said: "Oh, my dear Upatissa, why did you act like that? Why, during all these years, did you not bestow on me this ambrosia (the knowledge of the Deathless)?"

The Elder thought: "Now I have given my mother, the brahman lady Rupa-Sari, the nursing-fee for bringing me up. This should suffice." and he dismissed her with the words: "You may go now, upasika."

When she was gone, he asked: "What is the time now, Cunda?"

"Venerable sir, it is early dawn."

And the Elder said: "Let the community of bhikkhus assemble."

When the bhikkhus had assembled, he said to Cunda: "Lift me up to a sitting position, Cunda." And Cunda did so.

Then the Elder spoke to the bhikkhus, saying: "For forty-four years I have lived and traveled with you, my brethren. If any deed or word of mine was unpleasant to you, forgive me, brethren."

And they replied: "Venerable sir, not the least displeasure has ever come from you to us, who followed you inseparably like your shadow. But may you, venerable sir, grant forgiveness to us!"

After that the Elder gathered his large robe around him, covered his face and lay down on his right side. Then, just as the Master was to do at his Maha Parinibbana, he entered into the nine successive attainments of meditation, in forward and reverse order, and beginning again with the first absorption he led his meditation up to the fourth absorption. And at the moment after he had entered it, just as the crest of the rising sun appeared over the horizon, he utterly passed away into the Nibbana-element which is without any remnant of clinging.

And it was the full-moon day of the month Kattika, which by the solar calendar is between October and November.

The brahman lady in her room thought: "How is my son? he does not say anything." She rose, and going into the Elder's room she massaged his legs. Then, seeing that he had passed away, she fell at his feet, loudly lamenting; "O my dear son! Before this, we did not know of your virtue. Because of that, we did not gain the good fortune to have seated in this house, and to feed, many a hundred bhikkhus! We did not gain the good fortune to have built many monasteries!" And she lamented thus up to sunrise.

As soon as the sun was up, she sent for goldsmiths and had the treasure room opened and had the pots full of gold weighed on a large scale. Then she gave the gold to the goldsmiths with the order to prepare funeral ornaments. Columns and arches were erected, and in the center of the village the upasika had a pavilion of heart-wood built. In the middle of the pavilion a large, gabled structure was raised, surrounded by a parapet wall of golden arches and columns. Then they began the sacred ceremony, in which men and deities mingled.

After the great assembly of people had celebrated the sacred rites for a full week, they made a pyre with many kinds of fragrant woods. They placed the body of the Venerable Sariputta on the pyre and kindled the wood with bundles of Usira roots. Throughout the night of the cremation the concourse listened to sermons on the Dhamma. After that the flames of the pyre were extinguished by the Elder Anuruddha with scented water. The Elder Cunda gathered together the relics and placed them in a filter cloth.

Then the Elder Cunda thought: "I cannot tarry here any longer. I must tell the Fully Enlightened One of the final passing away of my elder brother, the Venerable Sariputta, the Marshal of the Law." So he took the filter cloth with the relics, and the Venerable Sariputta's almsbowl and robes, and went to Savatthi, spending only one night at each stage of the journey.

These are the events released in the Commentary to the Cunda Sutta of the Satipatthana Samyutta, with additions from the parallel version in the Commentary to the Maha-parinibbana Sutta. The narrative is taken up in the Cunda Sutta which follows.

Cunda Sutta 46
Once the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi, in Anathapindika's park. At that time the Venerable Sariputta was at Nalaka village in the Magadha country, and was sick, suffering, gravely ill. The Novice Cunda47 was his attendant.

And the Venerable Sariputta passed away finally through that very illness. Then the Novice Cunda took the almsbowl and robes of the Venerable Sariputta and went to Savatthi, to the Jeta Grove, Anathapindika's park. There he betook himself to the Venerable Ananda and, having saluted him, seated himself at one side. Thus seated, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda saying: "Venerable sir, the Venerable Sariputta has had his final passing away. These are his bowl and robes."

"On this matter, Cunda, we ought to see the Blessed One. Let us go, friend Cunda, and meet the Master. Having met him, we shall acquaint the Blessed One with that fact."

"Yes, Venerable sir," said the Novice Cunda.

They went to see the Blessed One, and having arrived there and saluted the Master, they seated themselves at one side. Then the Venerable Ananda addressed the Blessed One:

"O Lord, the Novice Cunda has told me this: 'The Venerable Sariputta has had his final passing away. These are his bowl and robes.' Then, O Lord, my own body became weak as a creeper; everything around became dim and things were no longer clear to me, when I heard about the final passing away of the Venerable Sariputta."

"How is this, Ananda? When Sariputta had his final passing away, did he take from you your portion of virtue, or your portion of concentration, or your portion of the knowledge and vision of deliverance?"

"Not so, Lord. When the Venerable Sariputta had his final passing away he did not take my portion of virtue... concentration... wisdom... deliverance, or my portion of the knowledge and vision of deliverance. But O Lord, the Venerable Sariputta has been to me a mentor, teacher, and instructor, one who rouses, inspires and gladdens, untiring in preaching Dhamma, a helper of his fellow monks. And we remember how vitalizing, enjoyable and helpful his Dhamma instruction was."

"Have I not taught you aforetime, Ananda, that it is the nature of all things near and dear to us that we must suffer separation from them, and be severed from them? Of that which is born, come to being, put together, and so is subject to dissolution, how should it be said that is should not depart? That, indeed, is not possible. It is, Ananda, as though from a mighty hardwood tree a large branch should break off, so has Sariputta now had his final passing away from this great and sound community of bhikkhus. Indeed, Ananda, of that which is born, come to being, put together, and so is subject to dissolution, how should it be said that it should not depart? This, indeed, is not possible.

"Therefore, Ananda, be ye an island unto yourself, a refuge unto yourself, seeking no external refuge; with the Teaching as your island, the Teaching your refuge, seeking no other refuge."

The Commentary takes up the narrative thus:

The Master stretched forth his hand, and taking the filter with the relics, placed it on his palm, and said to the monks:

"These, O monks, are the shell-colored relics of the bhikkhu who, not long ago, asked for permission to have his final passing away. He who fulfilled the Perfections for an incalculable aeon and a hundred thousand kalpas — this was that bhikkhu. He who obtained the seat next to me — this was that bhikkhu. He who, apart from me, had none to equal him in wisdom throughout the whole ten-thousandfold universe — this was that bhikkhu. Of great wisdom was this bhikkhu, of broad wisdom, bright wisdom, quick wisdom, of penetrative wisdom was this bhikkhu. Few wants had this bhikkhu; he was contented, bent on seclusion, not fond of company, full of energy, an exhorter of his fellow monks, censuring what is evil. He who went forth into homelessness, abandoning the great fortune obtained through his merits in five hundred existences — this was that bhikkhu. He who, in my Dispensation, was patient like the earth — this was that bhikkhu. Harmless like a bull whose horns had been cut — this was that bhikkhu. Of humble mind like a Candala boy — this was that bhikkhu.

"See here, O monks, the relics of him who was of great wisdom, of broad, bright, quick, keen and penetrative wisdom; who had few wants and was contented, bent on seclusion, not fond of company, energetic — see here the relics of him who was an exhorter of his fellow monks, who censured evil!"

Then the Buddha spoke the following verses in praise of his Great Disciple:

"To him who in five times a hundred lives
Went forth to homelessness, casting away
Pleasures the heart holds dear, from passion free,
With faculties controlled — now homage pay
To Sariputta who has passed away!

To him who, strong in patience like the earth,
Over his own mind had absolute sway,
Who was compassionate, kind, serenely cool,
And firm as earth withal — now homage pay
To Sariputta who has passed away!

Who, like an outcaste boy of humble mind,
Enters the town and slowly wends his way
From door to door with begging bowls in hand,
Such was this Sariputta — now homage pay
To Sariputta who has passed away!

One who in town or jungle, hurting none,
Lived like a bull whose horns are cut away,
Such was this Sariputta, who had won
Mastery of himself — now homage pay
To Sariputta who has passed away!"

* * *
When the Blessed One had thus lauded the virtues of the Venerable Sariputta, he asked for a stupa to be built for the relics.

After that, he indicated to the Elder Ananda his wish to go to Rajagaha. Ananda informed the monks, and the Blessed One, together with a large body of bhikkhus, journeyed to Rajagaha. At the time he arrived there, the Venerable Maha Moggallana had also had his final passing away. The Blessed One took his relics likewise, and had a stupa raised for them.

Then he departed from Rajagaha, and going by stages towards the Ganges, he reached Ukkacela. There he went to the bank of the Ganges, and seated with his following of monks he preached the Ukkacela Sutta, on the Parinibbana of Sariputta and Maha Moggallana.

Ukkacela Sutta48
Once the Blessed One was dwelling in the Vajji country, at Ukkacela on the bank of the river Ganges, not long after Sariputta and Maha Moggallana had passed away. And at that time the Blessed One was seated in the open, surrounded by company of monks.

The Blessed One surveyed the silent gathering of monks, and then spoke to them, saying:

"This assembly, O bhikkhus, appears indeed empty to me, now that Sariputta and Maha Moggallana have passed away. Not empty, for me, is an assembly, nor need I have concern for a place where Sariputta and Maha Moggallana dwell.

"Those who in the past have been Holy Ones. Fully enlightened Ones, those Blessed Ones, too, had such excellent pairs of disciples as I had in Sariputta and Maha Moggallana. Those who in the future will be Holy Ones, fully Enlightened Ones, those Blessed Ones too will have such excellent pairs of disciples as I had in Sariputta and Maha Moggallana.

"Marvelous it is, most wonderful it is, bhikkhus, concerning those disciples, that they will act in accordance with the Master's Dispensation, will act in according to his advice; that they will be dear to the four Assemblies, will be loved, respected and honored by them. Marvelous it is, most wonderful it is, bhikkhus, concerning the Perfect Ones, that when such a pair of disciples has passed away there is no grief, no lamentation on the part of the Perfect One.

For of that which is born, come to being, put together, and so is subject to dissolution, how should it be said that it should not depart? That indeed, is not possible."

"Therefore, bhikkhus, be ye an island unto yourselves, a refuge unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge; with the Teaching as your island, the Teaching your refuge, seeking no other refuge."

* * *
And with that profound and deeply moving exhortation, which echoes again and again through the Buddha's Teaching up to the time of his own final passing away, ends the story of the youth Upatissa who became the master's Chief Disciple, the beloved "Marshal of the Law." The Venerable Sariputta died on the full moon of the month Kattika, which begins in October and ends in November of the solar calendar. The death of Maha Moggallana followed a half-month later, on the Uposatha of the New Moon. Half a year later, according to tradition, came the Parinibbana of the Buddha himself.

Could such an auspicious combination of three great personages, so fruitful in blessings to gods and men, have been brought about purely by chance? We find the answer to that question in the Milinda-pañha49 where Nagasena says:

"In many hundred thousands of births, too, sire, the Elder Sariputta was the Bodhisatta's father, grandfather, uncle, brother, son, nephew or friend."50

So the weary round of becoming, which linked them together in time, came at last to its end; time which is but the succession of fleeting events became for them the Timeless, and round of birth and death gave place to the Deathless. And in their final lives they kindled a glory that has illumined the world. Long may it continue to do so.

Part IV - Discourses of Sariputta
The suttas attributed to the Venerable Sariputta cover a wide range of subjects connected with the Holy Life, from simple morality up to abstruse points of doctrine and meditational practice. A list of them, together with a brief description of the subject matter of each, is given below. their arrangement in the Sutta Pitaka does not give any indication of the chronological order in which they were delivered. Some few, however, contain references to particular events which make it possible to assign to them a period in the Buddha's ministry. One such is the Anathapindika Sutta, preached just before the great lay disciple's death.

Majjhima Nikaya
No. 3 Heirs of Dhamma (Dhammadayada Sutta)
After the Buddha had discoursed on "heirs of Dhamma" and "heirs of worldliness" and had retired into his cell, the Venerable Sariputta addresses the monks on how they should conduct themselves, and how not, when the Master goes into seclusion. They likewise should cultivate seclusion, should reject what they are told to give up, and should be modest and lovers of solitude. He concludes by speaking on the evil of the sixteen defilements of mind51 and says that the Middle Way by which they can be eradicated is the Noble Eightfold Path.

No. 5: Guiltfree (Anangana Sutta)
On four types of persons: those who are guilty of an offence and know it, and those who are guilty and unaware of it; those who are guiltless and know it, and those who are guiltless and unaware of it. The first of each pair is said to be the better one of the two, and the reason is explained. This discourse shows the importance of self-examination for moral and spiritual progress.

No. 9: Right Understanding (Samma-ditthi Sutta)
Summary on p. 42

No. 28: The Greater Discourse on the Elephant Footprint Simile (Maha-hatthipadopama Sutta)
Summary on p. 40

No 43: The Greater Discourse on Explanations (Maha-vedalla Sutta)
The Elder answers a number of questions put by the Venerable Maha Kotthita, who was foremost in analytical knowledge. Sariputta matches the excellence of the questions with the clarity and profundity of his answers. The questions and answers extend from analytical examination of terms, through the position of wisdom and right understanding to subtle aspects of meditation.

No. 69: Discourse to Gulissani (Gulissani Sutta)
On the conduct and Dhamma-practice to be followed by a forest-dwelling monk. Questioned by the Venerable Maha-Moggallana, the Elder confirms that the same duties apply also to monks living in the vicinity of towns and villages.

No. 97: Discourse to Dhanañjani (Dhanañjani Sutta)
The Venerable Sariputta explains to the brahman Dhanañjani that the multifarious duties of a layman are no excuse for wrong moral conduct, nor do they exempt one from painful consequences of such conduct in a future existence.

Later, when Dhanañjani was on his deathbed he requested the Elder to visit him, and the Venerable Sariputta spoke to him, on the way to Brahma through the Brahma-viharas. The Buddha mildly reproached the elder for not having led Dhanañjani to a higher understanding. (See p. 59)

No. 114: To Be Practiced and Not To Be Practiced (Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta)
The Venerable Sariputta elaborates upon brief indications given by the Buddha on what should be practiced, cultivated or used, and what should not. This is shown with regard to threefold action in deed, word and thought; in relation to mental attitudes and views, the six sense objects and the monk's requisites.

No. 143: Discourse to Anathapindika (Anathapindikovada sutta)
The Venerable Sariputta is called to Anathapindika's deathbed and admonishes him to free his mind from any attachment whatsoever, beginning with the six sense organs: "Thus should you train yourself, householder: 'I shall not cling to the eye, and my consciousness will not attach itself to the eye.' Thus, householder, should you train yourself." This is repeated in full for each of the other five sense organs, the six sense objects, the sixfold consciousness, sixfold contact, sixfold feeling born of contact; the six elements, the five aggregates, the four incorporeal jhanas, and concludes with detachment from this world and all other worlds; detachment from all things seen, heard, sensed and thought; from all that is encountered, sought and pursued in mind.

In short, detachment should be practiced as to the entire range of experience, beginning with what for a dying person will be his immediate concern; his sense faculties and their function.

This call for detachment drawing ever wider circles and repeating the same mighty chord of thought, must have had a deeply penetrating impact and a calming, liberating, even cheering influence on the dying devotee's mind. This was what Sariputta, the skilled teacher, obviously intended. And in fact his words had that impact because our text says that Anathapindika was moved to tears by the loftiness of the discourse, one in profundity unlike any he had ever heard before. Anathapindika passed away soon after, and was reborn as a deity in Tusita Heaven.

Digha Nikaya
No. 28: Faith-Inspiring Discourse (Sampasadaniya Sutta)
An eloquent eulogy of the Buddha by Sariputta, spoken in the Buddha's presence and proclaiming the peerless qualities (anuttariya) of his Teaching. It is an expression and at the same time a justification of Sariputta's deep confidence in the Buddha. It may be regarded as complementary to Sariputta's "Lion's Roar" which forms the first section of the discourse and is repeated in the Maha-parinibbana Sutta.52

No. 33: Doctrinal Recitation (Sangiti Sutta) and
No. 34: Tenfold Series Discourse (Dasuttara Sutta)
See pp. 44f.

Anguttara Nikaya
Roman figures denote the number of the book (nipata) and Arabic figures the number of the sutta. The division of the suttas in the Anguttara Nikaya is only numerical.

II, 37 (Samacitta-Sutta):
On the stream-winner, the once-returner and the nonreturner, and on what determines the places of the rebirths they have still before them. See p. 43.

III, 21:
On another classification of Noble Persons (ariya puggala): the Body-witness (kayasakkhi), the one attained to Right Understanding (ditthippatto) and the one Liberated through Faith (saddha-vimutto).

IV, 79:
Sariputta asks the Buddha why the enterprises of some people fail, those of others succeed, and those of others even surpass their expectations. The Buddha replies that one of the reasons is generosity, or lack of it, shown to ascetics, priests and monks.

IV, 156:
On four qualities indicative of loss or maintenance of wholesome states of mind.

Here it is said that if one finds in oneself four qualities one can know for certain that one has lost wholesome qualities, and that this is what has been called deterioration by the Blessed One. These four are: excessive greed, excessive hate, excessive delusion, and lack of knowledge and wisdom concerning the diverse profound subjects (relating to wisdom).

If on the other hand, one finds in oneself four other qualities, one can know for certain that one has not lost one's wholesome qualities, and that this is what has been called progress by the Blessed One. These four other qualities are: attenuated greed, attenuated hate, attenuated delusion, and the possession of knowledge and wisdom concerning the diverse profound subjects (relating to wisdom).

IV, 167f:
The four types of progress on the Path. See p. 23.

IV, 171:
Sariputta elaborates a brief statement made by the Buddha on the four forms of personalized existence (attabhava) and puts an additional question. The Buddha's reply to it was later elaborated by Sariputta in the Samacitta Sutta (see above).

IV, 172:
Sariputta states that he attained to the fourfold analytical knowledge (patisambhida-ñana) two weeks after his ordination (i.e., at his attainment of Arahatship). He appeals to the Buddha for confirmation. See p. 38.

IV, 173:
Discussion with Maha Kotthita on the limits of the explainable. The Venerable Sariputta says: "As far, brother, as the six bases of sense-impression (phassayatana) reach, so far reaches the (explainable) world of diffuseness (papañca); and as far as the world of diffuseness reaches, so far reach the six bases of sense-impression. Through the entire fading away and cessation of the six bases of sense impression, the world of diffuseness ceases and is stilled."

IV, 175:
On the need of both knowledge and right conduct (vijjacarana) for the ending of suffering.

IV, 179:
On the reasons for obtaining, and not obtaining, Nibbana in the present life.

V, 1 5:
Five reasons why people ask questions: through stupidity and foolishness; with evil intentions and through covetousness; with a desire to know; out of contempt; with the thought: "If he answers my question correctly, it is good; if not, then I shall give the correct answer.

V, 167:
On how to censure fellow-monks.

VI, 14-15:
Causes of a monk's good or bad dying.

VI, 41:
Sariputta explains that a monk with supernormal powers may, if he so wishes, regard a tree trunk merely as being solid, or as a liquid, fiery (calorific) or airy (vibratory), or as being either pure or impure (beautiful or ugly), because all these elements are to be found in the tree.

VII, 66:
On respect and reverence, Sariputta says that these are helpful in overcoming what is unwholesome and developing what is wholesome: that is respect and reverence towards the Master, the Teaching, the Community of Monks, the training, meditation, heedfulness (appamada) and towards the spirit of kindliness and courtesy (patisanthara). Each of these factors is said to be a condition of the one following it.

IX, 6:
On the two things needful to know about people, robes, almsfood, lodging, villages, towns and countries: that is, whether one should associate with them, use them, or live in them, or whether one should not.

IX, 11:
A second "Lion's Roar" of Sariputta, uttered in the Master's presence on the occasion of a monk's false accusation; with nine similes proclaiming his freedom from anger, detachment from the body, and his inability to hurt others. See p. 63.

IX, 13:
A discussion with the Venerable Maha Kotthita about the purpose of living the Holy Life.

IX, 14:
The Venerable Sariputta questions the Venerable Samiddhi about the essentials of the Dhamma and approves of his answers.

IX, 26:
This text illustrates the Venerable Sariputta's scrupulous fairness even towards antagonists. He corrects a statement attributed to Devaddata which was probably wrongly formulated by one of Devadatta's followers who reported it to Sariputta. Later, Sariputta speaks to that monk on the fully developed and steadfast mind, which is not shaken by even the most attractive sense impressions.

IX, 34:
On Nibbana, which is described as happiness beyond feelings.

X, 7:
Sariputta describes his meditation, during which he had only the single perception that "Nibbana is the ceasing of existence." See p. 37.

X, 65:
To be reborn is misery; not to be reborn is happiness.

X, 66:
To have delight in the Buddha's Teaching and Discipline is happiness; not to have delight in them is misery.

X, 67-68:
Causes of progress and decline in the cultivation of what is salutary.

X, 90:
On the ten powers of a canker-free arahant that entitle him to proclaim his attainment.

Samyutta Nikaya
Nidana Samyutta
24:
Sariputta rejects the alternatives that suffering is produced either by oneself or by another, and explains the conditioned arising of suffering through the (sixfold sense-) contact (phassa).

25:
The same is stated with regard to both happiness and suffering (sukha-dukkha).

31:
On the conditioned arising of existence from nutriment.

32:
Kalara Sutta. Questioned by the Buddha, Sariputta says that the knowledge inducing him to declare his attainment of arahantship was that he knew: the cause of birth being extinct, the result (i.e., future birth) becomes extinct. Hence he was able to say, in the words of the stock formula declaring Arahatship: "Extinct is birth..." (khina jati). He then replies to further questions of the Buddha about the cause and origin of birth, becoming and the other terms of dependent origination, leading up to feeling, the contemplation of which had served the Venerable Sariputta as the starting-point for his attainment of Arahatship. He says that, as he sees impermanence and suffering in all three kinds of feeling, there is in him no arising of any hedonic gratification (nandi).

Khandha Samyutta
1:
Sariputta explains in detail the Buddha's saying: "Even if the body is ill, the mind should not be ill."

2:
Monks going to distant border districts are instructed by Sariputta on how to answer questions posed to them by non-Buddhists. He tells them that the removal of desire for the five aggregates is the core of the Teaching.

122-123:
On the importance of reflecting on the five aggregates. If one who possesses virtue (or, in Text 123, learning) contemplates the five aggregates as impermanent, bound up with suffering and void of self, he may be able to attain to stream-entry. If a stream-winner, once-returner or nonreturner thus contemplates, he may be able to win to the next higher stage. An arahant should also contemplate the five aggregates thus, as it will conduce to his happiness here and now, as well as to mindfulness and clear comprehension.

126:
On ignorance and knowledge.

Sariputta Samyutta
1-9:
In these nine texts Sariputta speaks of his having developed all nine meditative attainments, i.e., from the first jhana up to the cessation of perception and feeling; and states that in doing so he was always free of any self-affirmation. See p. 37.

10:
Once, at Rajagaha, after the almsround the Venerable Sariputta was taking food his food near a wall. A female ascetic called Sucimukhi (Bright-face) approached him and asked whether when eating he turned to one or other of the directions, as done by some non-Buddhists ascetics. Sariputta denied it for every one of the directions, explaining them in his own way as being several means of livelihood that are wrong for ascetics, such as geomancy, astrology, going on errands, etc. He said that he did not turn to any of those wrong directions, but sought his almsfood in the right manner; and what he had thus obtained righteously, that he would eat. Sucimukhi was deeply impressed, and thereafter went from street to street and place to place loudly proclaiming: "The Sakya ascetics take their food righteously! They take their food blamelessly! Please give almsfood to the Sakya ascetics!"53

Salayatana Samyutta
232:
Not the senses and their objects, but the desire for them is the fetter that binds to existence.

Jambukhadaka Samyutta
Sariputta replies to questions put by his nephew, Jambukhadaka, who was a Paribbajaka, i.e., a non-Buddhist ascetic.

1-2:
He defines Nibbana and Arahatship as the elimination of greed, hatred and delusion.

3-16:
He replies to questions about those who proclaim truth: about the purpose of the Holy Life; about those who have found true solace. He explains feeling, ignorance, the taints, personality, etc. and speaks on what is difficult in the Buddha's Doctrine and Discipline.

Indriya Samyutta
44:
Questioned by the Buddha, Sariputta says that not out of faith in him, but from his own experience, he knows that the five spiritual faculties (confidence, etc.) lead to the Deathless.

48-50:
On the five spiritual faculties.

Sotapatti Samyutta
55:
On the four conditioning factors of stream-entry (sotapattiyanga).

Part V Sariputta in the Jatakas
As might be expected, the Venerable Sariputta makes frequent appearances in the Jatakas, the stories of the Buddha's previous lives. In these, the Bodhisatta and Sariputta assume various roles; in some existences we find Sariputta as the teacher and the Bodhisatta as pupil, as for example in the Susima (163), Cula Nandiya (223), Silavimamsa (305), Karandiya (356) and Maha Dhammapala (447) Jatakas. In the last-mentioned Jataka, however, the Bodhisatta, as pupil, gives his teacher, Sariputta, a valuable lesson: not to give the Five Precepts indiscriminately to those who have no desire to accept them nor the intention to observe them.

In several births Sariputta appears as a human being and the Bodhisatta an animal. Some examples are the Cula Nandiya Jataka (223), the Romaka Jataka (277) — where Sariputta, as a wise ascetic, instructs a partridge, the Bodhisatta — the Bhojajaniya Jataka (23) and the Dummedha Jataka (122).

In other stories the roles are reversed, as in the Jarudapana (256) and Kundakakucchi Sindhava (254) Jatakas (for the latter, see below), where Sariputta is an animal and the Bodhisatta human. Sometimes, as in the Kurungamiga Jataka (206), both are animals.

The following are summaries of Jatakas in which the Venerable Sariputta's previous personalities appear.

Lakkhana Jataka (11):
As the wise one of two brother stags, each leader of a herd, Sariputta brings his herd safely back to the hills from a dangerous track, while his foolish brother (Devadatta) loses his whole herd.

Bhojajaniya Jataka (23):
The Bodhisatta is a superb warsteed, while Sariputta is a knight entrusted with the task of capturing seven hostile kings. He succeeds, thanks to the endurance and sacrificing spirit of the steed.

Visavanta Jataka (69):
Sariputta is a snake which refuses to suck back its poison from a man bitten by it, preferring death. This Jataka was told when Sariputta, the Great Disciple, gave up the eating of meal cakes, which he enjoyed, and never went back on his resolution.

Parosahassa Jataka (99):
Sariputta, as pupil of a hermit teacher, is able to understand short, enigmatic sayings. A comment on his penetrative mind.

Dummedha Jataka (122):
Sariputta, as a king of Benares, is able to appreciate excellence when he sees it. The Bodhisatta is a superb white elephant. Devadatta, as king of Magadha, had owned that elephant but lost it through jealousy.

Rajovada Jataka (151):
Sariputta and Maha Moggallana are both charioteers of powerful kings. Meeting one another on a narrow road, each expects the other to give way, and they decide the issue by proclaiming the virtues of their respective monarchs. Sariputta, whose king is the Bodhisatta, wins the contest by showing that his master's virtue is superior: he is not only good to those who are good, he is good to the bad as well.

Alinacitta Jataka (156):
Sariputta, as an elephant, shows the virtue of gratitude.

Kurungamiga Jataka (206):
Sariputta as a woodpecker and Maha Moggallana as a tortoise save the life of the Bodhisatta, who is an antelope, from a hunter (Devadatta). Later, the woodpecker saves the imprisoned tortoise.

Cula Nandiya Jataka (223):
As a wise brahman teacher, Sariputta advises his pupil, Devadatta, not to be harsh, cruel and violent, but his exhortation is in vain.

Kundakakucchi Sindhava Jataka (254):
Sariputta, as a wondrous horse owned by the Bodhisatta, a horse-dealer, benefits an impoverished old woman who had owned the horse previously.

Jarudapana Jataka (256):
Sariputta, as a Naga king, helps the Bodhisatta, a merchant, to transport some treasure which the latter found.

Vyaggha Jataka (272):
In a former life as a Yakkha, the monk Kokalika could not live together with Sariputta and Maha Moggallana, nor could he live without them.

Romaka Jataka (277):
Sariputta, as a wise ascetic, instructs a partridge, the Bodhisatta.

Abbhantara (281) and Supatta (292) Jatakas:
Incidents of Sariputta's last life. Rahula, whose mother is a bhikkhuni, requests the Venerable Sariputta to get sugared mango juice as a medicine for her flatulence, which he does. In (292), for another illness of hers, the Venerable Sariputta procures rice cooked with ghee and flavored with red fish (rohita-maccha).

Sayha Jataka (310):
Ananda, as a king sends his courtier, Sayha (Sariputta) to a friend of his youth (the Bodhisatta) who had become an ascetic, asking him in vain to return and be the court brahman.

Khantivadi Jataka (313):
When the Bodhisatta was a wise ascetic, the Preacher of Patience (Khantivadi), and was tortured by King Kalabu (Devadatta), Sariputta was that king's commander-in-chief of the army. Sariputta bandaged the Bodhisatta's wounds.

Mamsa Jataka (315):
Sariputta was a hunter and the Bodhisatta a merchant's son. Addressing the hunter as ""friend," and winning him over with kind words, the Bodhisatta persuaded him to give up his cruel profession.

Vannoroha Jataka (361):
In their last lives, when the Great Disciples Sariputta and Maha Moggallana were living in solitude, a beggar who attended on them and ate the remnants of their food, tried to set them at variance but failed. Each of them just smiled at the calumnies and told to go away. The Jataka relates that the same had happened in an earlier life when the beggar was a jackal and Sariputta and Maha Moggallana were a lion and a tiger.

Kotisimbali Jataka (412):
Sariputta, as a king of the Garudas (supanna-raja) saves a tree which was the home of a tree spirit, the Bodhisatta.

Kanha Dipayana Jataka (444):
Sariputta is the ascetic Ani-Mandaviya. Impaled by the king on a false accusation, he bears the torture patiently and without resentment, knowing it to be the result of past evil kamma. The Bodhisatta is his brother-ascetic, Kanha Dipayana, who in an Act of Truth confesses that all throughout he has lived the ascetic life unwillingly, except for the first week.

Maha Paduma Jataka (472):
Sariputta, as a hill spirit, saves the life of the Bodhisatta, who is Prince Maha Paduma.

Appendix
A Note on the Relics of Sariputta
and Maha Moggallana

On Sanchi Hill in Bhopal are the remains of ten stupas which are among the oldest buildings still standing in India. By their architectural features and sculpture they have always been recognised as belonging to the high noon of Buddhist art, the characters in which their numerous inscriptions are written placing them at about the period of Asoka; that is, some time around the middle of the third century B.C. Some are in good preservation, while others have been reduced in the course of centuries to mere mounds of earth and stone.

It was in one of these, the now famous Third Stupa, that Sir Alexander Cunningham discovered the sacred Body Relics of the Buddha's Chief Disciples, Sariputta and Maha Moggallana, in 1851. At about the same time, more relics of the two great Arahats were found in a stupa at Satadhara, about six miles distant from Sanchi.

On sinking a shaft in the center of the stupa on Sanchi Hill, Cunningham came upon a large stone slab, upwards of five feet in length, lying in a direction from north to south. Beneath the slab were found two boxes of gray sandstone, each with a brief inscription in Brahmi characters on the lid. The box to the south was inscribed "Sariputtasa" "(Relics) of Sariputta," while that to the north bore the legend "Maha-Mogalanasa." "(Relics) of Maha Moggallana."

The southernmost box contained a large flat casket of white steatite, rather more than six inches broad and three inches in height. The surface was hard and polished and the box, which had been turned on a lathe, was a beautiful piece of workmanship. Around this casket were some fragments of sandalwood believed to have been from the funeral pyre, while inside it, besides the Relic, various precious stones were found. This casket contained a single bone relic of the Venerable Sariputta, not quite one inch in length.

The stone box to the north enclosed another steatite casket, similar to that of Sariputta but slightly smaller and with a softer surface. Inside it were two bone relics of the Venerable Maha Moggallana, the larger of them being something less than half an inch in length.

Each of the two steatite caskets had a single ink letter inscribed on the inner surface of the lid: "Sa" for Sariputta on the southern and "Ma" for Maha Moggallana on that to the north. In Cunningham's words, "Sariputta and Maha Moggallana were the principal followers of the Buddha, and were usually styled his right and left hand disciples. Their ashes thus preserved after death the same positions to the right and left of Buddha which they had themselves occupied in life."54 This is explained by the fact that the Buddha customarily sat facing east.

In the stupa at Satadhara, one of a group which Cunningham noted was called locally "Buddha Bhita" or "Buddha Monuments," he discovered two caskets of pale mottled steatite. These were inscribed, like those at Sanchi, "Sariputtasa" and "Maha Mogallanasa" respectively. This stupa showed signs of having been violated by robbers, but the bone relics had been left undistrubed. Cunningham, who is a very capable archaeologist, has left a detailed account of everything his excavations brought to light in these and other stupas, and it is thanks to him that the authenticity of the relics is established beyond all doubt.

The relics from both stupas were removed to England and placed in the Victoria and Albert Museum, but some discrepancies between Cunningham's description of the caskets and the actual boxes in which the relics were deposited gives reason to believe that he, or someone else, transferred the relics from Sanchi to the caskets discovered at Satadhara, and what became of the Sanchi steatite caskets is not known for certain.

The Sacred Relics were preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum until 1939, when the Maha Bodhi Society approached the British government with a request that they be returned to India. The request was at once granted, but owing to the outbreak of the second World War in that year, the actual transfer was delayed for reasons of safety until Feb 24th, 1947. On that date they were handed over to the representatives of the Maha Bodhi Society at the Victoria and Albert Museum, and so began their journey back to the land of their origin.

Before being restored to India, however, the relics were taken to Sri Lanka, where they were received with great honor and amid general rejoicing. For two and a half months in 1947, they were displayed for public worship at the Colombo Museum, where it has been estimated that well over two million people paid homage to them. It is said that not only Buddhists but Hindus, Christians and Muslims joined in paying reverence to them.55

The next stage of their journey to the new Vihara that was being erected for their re-enshrinement at Sanchi, was Calcutta. There the relics were displayed for public homage at the Dharmarajika Vihara, headquarters of the Maha Bodhi Society of India. The same scenes of religious devotion were enacted there. Every day for two weeks an unbroken stream of people filed past the shrine where the relics were exposed, from morning until late evening. Most of the devotees were Hindus, but there was also a large number of Muslims among them, and the reverence shown by all was a deeply impressive sight. Many had come from distant parts to pay their respects to the remains of these great sons of India.

Next came a request from Burma that the relics should be taken for exposition here. This was readily granted. The reception given to them in that country revived all the pomp and religious fervor of ancient times. In order that everyone in Burma should be given an opportunity of worshipping them, the relics were conducted on a riverine tour along the Irrawaddy from Mandalay to Rangoon. The steamer that conveyed them was escorted by boats decorated in traditional Burmese style, and at every town along the river the relics were taken ashore in procession for worship at the chief pagoda. At the same time religious meetings were held, drawing vast crowds of people from the adjacent villages to hear sermons and the recitation of suttas, which usually continued all through the night.

Subsequently, at the request of the respective governments, the relics were taken for exposition to Nepal and Ladakh.

After they were returned to India the Burmese government asked that a portion of the Sacred Relics should be given to Burma. The Maha Bodhi Society of India agreed to this, and the then Prime Minister of Burma went in person to Calcutta to receive them. They were ceremonially transferred to him on the 20th October 1950. The portion allotted to Burma was afterwards enshrined in the Kaba Aye Zedi (World Peace Pagoda), built on the site of the Sixth Great Buddhist Council, close to Rangoon. The elaborate ceremonies connected with the crowning of the pagoda and the installation of the relics lasted from the 5th to 11th of March, 1952.

Another portion was given to Sri Lanka to be enshrined in a new stupa built by the Maha Bodhi Society of Sri Lanka to receive them. At the time of writing they are housed in the temple of the Maha Bodhi Society, Colombo, awaiting the completion of the building.

On the 30th November, 1952, the remaining relics were duly enshrined at Sanchi on completion of the new Chetiyagiri Vihara built to receive them. There they remain, objects of the deepest veneration to pilgrims from every Buddhist country, and a lasting reminder of the lives of those in whom the Buddha's Teaching bore its finest fruit.

Notes
1. According to the Cunda Sutta (Satipatthana Samyutta) and its Commentary, the name of his birthplace was Nalaka, or Nalagama, which may be an alternative name. It was probably quite close to the more famous Nalanda. Sariputta's father was a brhamin named Vaganta. (Comy. to Dhammapada, v. 75).

2. "Ye dhamma hetuppabhava tesam hetum tathagato aha, tesañca yo nirodho evamvadi mahasamano 'ti." This gatha was later to become one of the best-known and most widely-disseminated stanzas of Buddhism, standing for all time as a reminder of Sariputta's first contact with the Dhamma and also as a worthy memorial to Assaji, his great arahant teacher. Spoken at a time when the principle of causality was not accorded the prominence it enjoys today in philosophical thought, its impact on the minds of the early Buddhists must have been revolutionary.

3. That is, monks, nuns, and male and female lay followers.

4. Carita-vasena. This refers to the types of character (carita) as explained in The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga, Ch. III).

5. This is a reference to the Discourse in the Anguttara Nikaya, Sevens, No. 58 (P.T.S. IV.85).

6. Dighanakha Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya No. 74.

7. The fact of his attainment to analytical knowledge, which has here been added to the commentarial text, was mentioned by the Venerable Sariputta himself in Anguttara Nikaya, Fours, No. 172.

8. The Venerable Sariputta refers to his way of attaining Arahatship in verses 995-96 in the Theragatha.

9. Sutta Nipata, vv. 316ff. (Also called "Dhamma Sutta.")

10. Jataka No. 156.

11. Culavagga, Sanghabhedaka-khandaka, Sanghabhedaka-katha.

12. Culavagga, Sanghabhedaka-khandaka, Sanghabhedaka-katha.

13. Culavagga, Kammakkhandaka, Pabbajaniyakamma; Parajika Pali, Sanghadisesa-kanda, Kuladusaka-sikkhapada.

14. Devaputta-Samy., Susima Sutta.

15. See p. 80.

16. Conceit (mana) and restlessness (uddhacca) are two of the three fetters (samyojana) which are destroyed only at the stage of Arahatship. Worry (or scruples: kukkucca), however, is removed already at the stage of nonreturner (anagami).

17. Is not subject to the vagaries of the mind.

18. Magga Samyutta, No. 2.

19. Khanda Samyutta, No. 2.

20. Tittita Jataka (No. 37).

21. Vinaya (Cula-Vagga, Senasana-khandhaka).

22. Theragatha v. 81 and Commentary.

23. Majjh. 143.

24. Udana VII, 1.

25. Samyutta Nikaya, vol. III: Khandha vagga.

26. Ang., Tens, No. 7.

27. The Buddhas, although they are able to divine such matters themselves, ask questions for the instruction and illumination of others.

28. See Wheel No. 101.

29. See Right Understanding, Discourse and Commentary, translated by Soma Thera (Lake House Bookshop, Colombo).

30. Anguttara Nikaya (PTS), Vol I, 63 (Twos, No. IV, 5).

31. The Commentary to the Theragatha, by Bhadantacariya Dhammapala, quotes from the Niddesa and attributes it to Sariputta (Dhammasenapati).

32. See "Buddhist Education in Pali and Sanskrit Schools," by E.J. Thomas in Buddhistic Studies, ed. by B.C. Law (Calcutta, 1931), pp. 223ff.

33. A. II, 160; see p. 15.

34. Translated in Mindfulness of Breathing by Ñanamoli Thera, Kandy, Buddhist Publication Society, 1964).

35. Majjh. No. 111.

36. Majjh. No. 5.

37. A slightly different version of this is found in the Commentary to the Theragatha where it deals with Sariputta's verses.

38. Parajika Pali, Introductory chapter.

39. Majjh. No. 67.

40. A "lion's roar" (siha-nada) is a weighty and emphatic utterance, made with assurance.

41. Dhammapada, v. 95.

42. See Maha-parinibbana Sutta, Ch. II (Last Days of the Buddha, Wheel No. 67/69, p. 26). It was during his stay at Beluva that the Master fell gravely ill.

43. In the Himalayas.

44. Sariputta himslef and his younger brothers and sisters.

45. Vangisa Samy., No. 7.

46. Satipatthana Samyutta, No. 23.

47. Cunda Samanuddesa. Comy: "He was the Venerable Sariputta's younger brother. Before he received Higher Ordination the bhikkhus use to call him 'Novice Cunda,' and even when he was an elder he was still so addressed." (See. p. 54.)

48. Satipatthana Samyutta, No. 24.

49. This is according to the Commentary to the Ukkacela Sutta.

50. Milinda's Questions by I.B. Horner, Vol. I, p. 295. See also the chapter "Sariputta in the Jatakas" (Part V of this book).

51. See "The Simile of the Cloth" (M. 7) in Wheel No. 61/62, p. 12.

52. See Wheel No. 67/69, pp. 9f.

53. Sariputta's method of teaching in this discourse invites comparison with the Buddha's in the Sigalovada Sutta (Digha Nikaya, 31).

54. Bhilsa Topes, p. 300.

55. The Cynosure of Sanchi, p. 28.

Source: Compiled and translated from the Pali texts by Nyanaponika Thera. Copyright © 1987 Buddhist Publication Society. Reproduced and reformatted from Access to Insight edition © 1994 For free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted, and redistributed in any medium. It is the author's wish, however, that any such republication and redistribution be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis and that translations and other derivative works be clearly marked as such.